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Part I. 


The first beginnings of what has been called 
* Kashmir Shaivaism', to distinguish it from other forms 
of Shaivaism known and still practised in different parts 
of India, may have to be traced to the Shiva Sutras 1 , 
which, together with the commentary on them by 
"Kshemaraja called the Vimarshini, have been published 
as the opening volume of this set ies of publications, i e. 
The Kashmir Series of Texts awd Studies. Its teachings 
and practices are given, in the literature of the system, 
the distinctive name of Trika-shdsana, Trjjca^hcietra 
or simply Trika?; and are often referred to as the 

1, Dr. Blihler (Report pp. 78 & clxvii) calls them 
the * Spanda Sutras ' which however is a mistake. The name 
Spanda Sutras is given to the Spanda-Kdrihds, see below 
p. 15. That by the Shiva Sutras, the Sutras published in the 
first volume of this series are meant may be seen from the Shiva 
Sutra Vdrttika where the Sutras are often introduced with 
the words 'fare: *j?mtfT^C or 's^tf* HfW. The Spanda 
Pradipika ( on Karika 11 ) and the Tantraloka (Ahn. i. p. 40 
of MS.), among others, also refer to them as the Shiva Sutras. 

2. Even Tsswuwsr, see Tantra-Sara, Ahn. ix (begin- 
ning ); also q(3WTfa|rrc, Tantrdl. Viv. i. 9. The word Trika 
refers, among other things, to the triple principle with which 
the system deals, viz. faw-tfrK-srsj or qft-qro-qg. The phrase 
src-5rfta-ftrcR»rij fa% occurs in the Para Trim, Viv, Intro, 
Verse. 3. I 

^a^a^a-Sampraddya\ while Shaivaism in general is 

% s6^eh of as Shiva- Shdsana 2 or Shivdgama. 

~^ The peculiarity of the Trika consists in the fact 

that, as a system of Philosophy, it is a type of idealistic 

monism ( advaita ) 3 , and as such differs in fundamental 

1. The occasional reference to the system as $«rarcrew7rar 
is due probably to the fact that Somananda, the promulgator 
of its philosophy, as distinguished from its doctrines as a 
system of faith, (sea below p. 2G) claimed his descent from 

For all these various names given to the system see, 
among others, Para Trim. Viv., Fols. 199 and 205; Tantrah 
Viv., Ahn. i. p. 34 and Shiva-Sv. Vim. 50 r. 

fg*n ^wlta^favfWi %3njrm*r 11 ' T antral, i. p. 49. 

Here fMrow% is explained by the commentator as q^cft^ 
qmteft ^5%. From this it i^ clear that f^jrcpr means Shaivaism 
or Shaiva Philosophy in general because the special Kashmiri 
form or Trika is regarded as not q^forteq but only 3;^- 
wtrTte?; see below p. 6, note 1, # 

•3.t S^e below Part II. 

As at example of its thorough-going Advaitism the 
opening stanza of the Shiva Drishti of Somananda may be 
quoted. It runs as below: — 

ftre* 3^3 fairer W- 3TTf*TT cTcH^% 11 

Here the worshipper as well as the obstacles for the 
removal of which the worship is offered ( aTR*TfaHrn;3r i.e. 
arrcwrc^cTHT fasrrci JffcrftwRT^ ) are regarded as essentially the 
same as Shiva himself. Such'being the teaching of the Trika 
Shastra, which includes, as will be seen ( below p. 7 ), 
the Spanda Shastra, the identification of the latter with 
what is termed « Shaiva Darshana ' in the Sarva Darshana 
Sahgraha of Madhavacharya, as was done by Dr. Biihler, is 
evidently a mistake. As a matter of fact, Kashmir Shaivaism 
or the Trika, is treated in that work under the name 
of Pratyabhijfia Darshana. That Madhavacharya was right 
in this will be shown later (below pp. 17-20). See also Bhandar- 
har % page 81. * 

principles from other forms of Shaiva Philosophy, for 
instance, from what is described under the name of the 
Shaiva Darshana in the Sarva-Darshana-Sangraha of 

Although the Trika form of Shaivaism would seem 
to have made its first appearance in Kashmir at the 
beginning of the ninth, or perhaps towards the end of the 
eighth century of the Christian era/ Shiva Shasana or 
Shivagama, that is Shaivaism as such, is far older than 
this date. 2 Indeed we may have to trace its beginnings 
in the Vedic Revelations. In Kashmir itself — where even 
>the most orthodox followers of the Shivagama admit 
that the Trika-Shasana first appeared ( or, as they 
put it, reappeared ) about the beginning of the ninth 
Christian century — Shivagama is regarded as of high 
^antiquity, indeed of eternal existence like the Vedas. 
According to the b&lief and tradition of the Kashmir 
Shaivas, the history of Shivagamatand of the Trika is as 
follows : — • 

" Before their manifestation, all Shastras,«^fficlf are 
but thoughts expressed as speech, like the manifested 

*1. Below p. 23. 
2. Bhandarkar p. 76. 

It would be most interesting to trace the history of 
Shaivaism in general from its very beginning, which is most 
likely to be found outside the valley of Kashmir, and of its 
subsequent spread from the valley under the form of the 
Trika, specially as this investigation has now been started 
by the papers of Mr, D. R. Bhandarkar (paper on Lakullsha) 
and Drs. Fleet (J. R. A. S. for 1907, pp. 419 et seqq. ) and 
Barnett (Siddhdnta Dipikd, Vol. xi, pp. 62-64 and 101-103 and 
J. M. A. S. for 1910, p. 706). But I had to give up this 
attempt, which, with great diffidence no doubt, I once thought 
of undertaking, for two reasons : the great difficulty in 
getting (situated as I am in Kashmir) necessary works for 
study and reference and the consideration that the result 
of such an investigation could not very well be incorporated 
in what was to be merely an introduction to a text, without 
making the publication inordinately bulky, but should be 
published separately as an independent volume. 

universe itself which forms the object of that thought 
and speech, existed in the as yet unuttered thought and 
experience of the Supreme Deity in the form of the 
'All-transcending Word' ( the Para Vak ) that is beyond 
all objective thought and speech in every one of their 
forms, not excepting even the Avyakta, the most germinal 
of them. 

a Next, as the manifestation of the Universe begins, 
the Para Vak, the All-transcending Word, also begins to 
appear in the form of that thought and experience which 
would hold, as it were in a mighty Vision, the whole 
universe which is to be and which is still in a most 
germinal and undifferentiated state so that it cannot yet 
be thought, much less spoken, of as consisting of ' this ' 
or* that' — —the Para Vak puts forth, in other words, 

another form, that of the Pashyanti^ which is the 'Vision' * 
of the whole Universe* in its undifferentiated form. 
Then as the manifestation of the Universe progresses, 
and its contents form the objects (ff discursive thought and 
exp6riefice»—as they become distinguishable from one 
another as 'this' or 'that', — what was erstwhile the all- 
holding ( field of Vision/ the Pashyanti Vak, assumes 
a third form, the Middle one, Madhyama, which stands, 
as it were as a link, between, on the one hand, the 
undifferentiated Pashyanti and, on the crther, what is soon 
going to be the spoken word, the Vaikhari Vak 2 , which is 

1. ' <TWrft ^frrffr^T i ' Shiva Dri$h. $ ii. 35. 

See also Utpala's Comm^on Shiva Drish., ii. 1 and 3, 
Comp. also the Greek philosophical conception of the 'Idea.' 

2. i. fiPTOwrofiprfr^ %^rCt wfo i Utpala's Tika on Shiva 

Driqh. ii. 7, where the following is also quoted 

ii, fa<sft srfft *r^r^%<rft| TantraL Viv. iii. p. 136. 
The explanation of Iterft, however, given by the commen* 
tator on the Alankdra-Kaustubha, would seem to indicate that 
he derived it from & <jr 3 ( as preserved in fa?r and faf ) 
meaning the nose! or rather, the vocal organ, 

but thought and experience expressed by means of the 

vocal organ. And what are called the Shaiva Shastras — 

indeed all Shastras — are nothing but this Divine Madhyania 
Vak assuming these forms and 'flowing out/ as the 

Vaikhari or spoken words, in five ' streams/ from what 
maybe regarded as th6 'Five Faces' of the Deity, — the 
Faces which represent the five aspects of His five-fold 

power and glory — namely, of Chit, Ananda, Ichchha, Jnana 
ancL Kriya 1 , and which are respectively called Ishana, 
Tat-Purusha Sadyojata, Aghora # and Varna. The 
Shaiva Shastras, which thus streamed forth from the five 
Divine Mouths in these the five-fold faces of the Deity, 

consisted originally and in their entirety of no less than 
sixty- four 4 systems ' representing as many aspects of 
thought and suited to the diverse needs of the people but 
were all divisible under the three classes oT what taught 
"a. the essential unity* and identity of all that 
appears as the many ; ( Advaitafcr Abheda ); 

"6. the diversity*of principles which, in this way 
only i. e. as a diversity, could be comprehended by some 
as the essence of things ( Bheda ); and * 

" c. the unity, from one point of view, and diversity 
from another, of these principles according to the com- 
prehension of others ( Bhedabheda ). 2 

"But of tlftse sixty four systems, which, as such, at 
first appeared in the form of the Madhvama Vak of the 
Deity and afterwards 'streamed forth' from his five Divine 
Mouths, as Vaikhari the Spoken words, but which had all 
along existed, first as the Para and then in the Pashyanti 
form— of these sixty-four Shaiva'Shastras most disappeared 
with the growing influence of the Kali age and with the 
gradual disappearance of the Rishis who, having learnt 
the Shastras, were the repositories of their knowledge. 
As, thus, with the disappearance of the Shastras the world 

1. For the meanings of these technical terms, which 
are left purposely untranslated here, see below Fart II. 

2. See my Hindu Realism, Introduction, Section on 
the meaning of Prasthana-bheda, pp. 5-lQ f 


became engrossed in 'spiritual darkness, Shiva, — as the 
Deity is called, — took pity on men and, appearing on the 
Kailasa mountain in the form of Shrikantha, commanded 
the Sage Durvasas to spread in the world the knowledge 
of these Shastras again. Durvasas, thus commanded, 
created, by the power of his mind, three sons, — Tryambaka, 

Amardaka and Shrinatha by names — whom he chraged 
with the mission of establishing spiritual order and of 
teaching men again the ancient and eternal Shaiva faith 
and doctrine in their three aspects of Abheda, Bheda and 
Bhedabheda — of Unity, Diversity and Diversity-in-unity, — 

Tryambaka was to teach the first, Amardaka the second, 
while Shrinatha was to have the charge of the last. It is 
this Abheda or Advaya Shaiva teaching, thus retaught to 
the world by Tryambaka, which is spoken of as the Trika." 1 

1. The above is freely translated from the following 
account summarised from the Tantraloka and its Commentary. 

5S ^3 «n^Kw^nwNnfc»T^Rf q*F?t qifa t *Hmrqf%H^qr^ si snsr 

qrr*TcTCT ^JT^^T^^^r-cT^frTf3?cr ^ f^ cTT q*qq*T&%^ ff*TPTr TOSWTRt 

srrc-f^^qi^q^rciq3tq ^^if^rw:^2SjRf^^«m- rr^^^j^n qs^at- 

cT«n fit wmfa i tfff-^q-s^Tff-3?^-qm^q q^WTiftT^j %** 
*q q$* s%^ : ■qgsqf&rmfa %q^fqiPr *rf|ft i cnft q^q?J3*qi<T, sq^rq- 

^mPrit qforo^ tftaraqjfr %q\ faf^vrsq ftfasthwsfaftq^rw^ 
qs$qw-(faqrcei-) fq^rmsq rrmv^ gqW gf*rcTfa?q^ i s gftt m^m^ 

swmwmi q^rcftg *qgf i % m$ *ww^ argqislfaqq^ fqqrTWTcT 

^n&q ml qnq m\ epj cfcTt 3^5^ 1 

rTc?t *ra rraanfa fa% sqfa*r q*n 11 [ cpsrrsfto fio \$ 50 ] 

tfa* ^t^ ^^t^tg^vq: ^g^qfWRT %qaWIT *$l whftftJmW wfo 


A portion of this account is given in brief in the extract 
made from the now lost Shiva Drishpi Vritti ; see below 
page 24. 

However this may be, before tracing the history of 
the Trika as represented in its existing literature, since 
its appearance — or reappearance according to the belief of 
its followers— in the 9th. Christian Century, it may be 
convenient to give here a brief account of this literature 

The literature of the Trika falls into three broad 
divisions : — 




The chief features of the three Shastras, as they are 
called, and a few of the principal and still existing works 
belonging to each of them are as follows : — * 

A. THE AGAMVsHASTRA— This is regarded as 
of superhuman authorship. It % lays down both the 

1. Buhler's statement (JReport pp. 78 & 79) that the 
Spanda and the Pratyabhijfut Shastras are two difte^rtt systems 
of philosophy was based on an error. See below pp. 17-33. 
The term sjrcsr as employed in this connection does not mean a 
separate system but a treatise or treatises dealing with a parti- 
cular aspect or aspects of the same system; comp., for instance, 
^Hif^^^^-f^ci^-^r^^cr^iirs; Para, Trim. Viv., fo]. 
73 ^f. As is well known, these works do not represent so many 
different systems but only treatises on the various aspects of 
the same system of thought, namely, the Trika. That on the 
Trika there were many treatises er»ch of which was called a 
snsr may be gathered also from the following, 

*f% ftre*n&3 iF*ftft^5fa«rfct » Para Trim. Fit?., last verse. 
Com. also the phrase ftjnreffegra in Para Trim. Viv. fol. 124 ^. 
If by *&rer we are to understand a separate system of philosophy, 
then the ftnrcfesnsr must also be regarded as different from the 
JT<*rf*n{rrcn5r. We, however, know that this is not only not the 
case but that the latter is only 'a reflection* ( jrfctftFTO ) of the 

former; Ishv. Pra. Vimr } Intro, verse 2. 




doctrines ( jfi&na) and 1 the practices ( kriya ) of the system 
as revelations which are believed to have come down 
( ftgama ) through the ages, being handed down from 
teacher to pupil 

Among the works (if they may be so called ) belong- 
ing to this Shastra there is a number of Tantras, of which 
the chief ones are the following:— 

Malini Vijaya ( or Malini Vijayoltara ) 


Vijhdna Bhairava 

Uchchhushma Bhairava 

Ananda Bhairava ( lost ) 





Svdyambhuva • 

Rudra-ydmala (from which the famous Pard<* 
Trimshikd verses are said to be taken ) 

Moslflf* these had existed long before the appearance 
( or reappearance ) of the Trika and taught mostly a 
dualistic doctrine; at any rate they seem to have been 
interpretated in a dualistic, even a pluralistic, sense. 1 

It was to stop the spread of this dualistic teaching 3 
and to show that the highest form of the SRivagama taught 
only the pure Advaita Tattva — Idealistic Monism — that 
there were revealed the 

Shiva Sutras, 
which therefore form, fr<5m the Trika point of view, the 
most important part of the Agama Shastra. Indeed, they 
are spoken of as the 'Shivopanishat-Sangraha' 3 which is 
again interpreted as'Shivarahasyagama-Shastra-Sarigraha'. 

1. Below p. .10. 

Shiv. Su. Vim. ?o * # 
3. Shiv. Sii, Vim. ?© t and foot-note 14 on it. 


Their authorship is attributed # io Shiva himself, 1 
while they are said to have been revealed to the sage 
Vasugupta who must have lived towards the end of the 
eighth or the beginning of the ninth Christian century. 2 

On the Bliiva Sutras there are : — 

a. The Vritti 

b. The Varttika of Bh&skara. 

and c. The Commentary called Vimarshinl 

by Kshenfaraja. 

Of these, the Varttika is admittedly of a later date, 
perhaps of the 11th. century, 3 while what is now known 
as the Shiva-Sitira Vritti is of uncertain authorship. 
Almost every word of this Vritti is to be found interspers- 
ed in the Vimarshinl of Kshemaraja. The Vritti may 
thus be either an ext^ict from the Vimarshinl or it may 
be an earlier work which was incorporated by Kshemaraja 
in his commentary. This is, howeter, a point which I have 
at present no means of 'deciding. 

There are also commentaries on some of fh» Mantras. 
Of these the chief ones are the following: — 

the Uddyota on the Svachchhanda 

do do Netra 

dor do Vijndna-Bhairava 

Vritti do Matanga 

These commentaries are great attempts to show how 
the pre-Shiva-Sutra Tantras taught the Advaita Tattva, al- 
though in reality they seem to hkve taught but plain and 
unvarnished dualism and even pluralism, like what is 
described as the Shaiva Darshana in Madhava's Sarva 
Darshana Sangraha. That some of the Tantras had had 
dualistic interpretations can be definitely proved. We 

1. Varttika, ^H\% H\*atx* or ftrsp *j5R#r^ \ 

2. Below p. 23. 

3. Below p. 37. 



find, for instance, at the end of the Commentary on the 
Svachchhanda, called the Uddyota, by Kshemaraja, the 
following verses : — 

From this it is clear that the doctrines of the Tantra 
had previously been understood to represent a dualistic 
system of philosophy and that it was only after the rise 
of the Advaita Shaivaism that the Tantra-Shastra was 
incorporated^ into the literature of the Trika by giving 
a different interpretation to it. 1 • # 

Even the Malinl \i^aya, which is regarded as one 
of the best authorities 2 on Advait^ Shaivaism, containing 
the true doctrine of the Siddha Yogishvara, would seem 
originally* to have been a work on dualistic Shaivaism. 3 

1. The priority of the Tantras, at least of some of 
them, may be gathered from allusions to them by Somananda, 
for instance, in his reference to the Matanga and Svdyam- 
bhuva Tantras and their Tihds ( Shiva Driskti, iii. 13-15 ) t 

2 crane *rfatorcrcc- f TantrdL Viv., i. p. 34; also 

MO. Vij., I 13. 

3. As a prominent example of the adaptation of an 
older work to suit one's #wn purpose may be mentioned the 
Par amartha- Sara of Abhinava Gupta. It is admittedly based 
on an older treatise known as the Adhdra-Rarikas. Indeed, 
the ParamarthctrSara of Abhinava Gupta is only the Adhdra 
Rdrikas with a few alterations here and there in wording and 
with the addition of a few verses which are Abhinava 
Gupta's own and the omission of a few others of the original. 

Abhinava Gupta is quite frank about it. For at the 
very beginning of his task he plainly says that he is going to 


explain the essence of the Adhara Karikas according to (or 
in the light of) the Shaiva Philosophic system, fcscfe^KRartTfar, 
which is the same as ftre-( or Chr- ) ^wra^to. 

That f<icf?fg is the same as ftm-or IN-^k, or that it may 
even be the particular treatise called the ftjc^fe ( or ftj^ffesjisr 
Para Trim. Viv. fol, 124 ^ ), which was the first work on the 
subject, will be shown presently; for efe meaning ^sh i. e. 
Philosophy, see p. 18, note 1 below. 

^Thatsjwfr an d vv& are interchangeable terms may be 
gathered from the following use of the words : — 

s^r ^ j?t* a^rec* 5rv3rreft h 

Para. Tri^K Vw., fol. 199 %. 

The very openipg* sentence <jf the commentary on the 
Paramdrtha-sdra itself also begins with the words ^5 fti^TS/T-^nrer^ 
which, as is obvious, means ^ ftj3Tg*T- ( or f3j3itfc- ) ?tt%. 

As another instance of the use of sjth^t meaning a system, 
or a system of philosophy, see the verse quoted in ntfte 2, p. 2* 
above and the explanation of fijcjsjisPT occurring in it. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that Dr. Barnett 
in translating this phrase faereftenswrft^ by "in mystic 
vision of Shiva's law " (J. It. A. S. for July 1910, p. 719) 
has, I fear, mad« a mistake. The commentator, Yogaraja 
(as he is known in Kashmir and not Yogamuni) — whom Abhi- 
nava Gupta himself evidently taught for a time ( see below 
p. 35) and who, therefore, #inust have known his master's 
meaning — clearly explains the phrase by q^SFKsrccWTOicr- 
*w%w\ i. e. According to the view (or philosophy) [which 
establishes] the Svatantrya of the Svasvarupa which is Parana- 
advaya'. The terms left untranslated here are all technical 
terms which are special to the Shaiva Philosophy of Kashmir; 
and they clearly show that what the commentator means is 
that Abhinava Gupta is going to present the original 
Adhara Kdrikds } or their purport, in the light of the special 
doctrines 0/ the Advaita Shaiva Philosophy or the Trika 


Shastra of Kashmir, the original Karikas having been 
written from the standpoint of the Sankhya philosophy — 

on Paramd. Sdr. 3. The contrasting of tftesRq*, which cannot 
mean anything but the Sankhya system of philosophy, with 
f^rcfeWTir would also show that the latter expression means 
only %cf-( or §3- ) ^fasrrsr, which is a rational system, and 
not any f mystic vision/ which must be supra-rational, 'of 
Shiva's law/ 

It may also be noted in this connection that Dr. Barnett 
has most likely been misled in making the following re- 
marks: — 

"Our Paramarthasara must be distinguished from another 
little work of the same name, of which an edition was 
published in 1907 at Madras, with a Telugu paraphrase by 
Pattisapu Vetikateshvarudu. The latter consists of seventy- 
nine Aryd verses; a considerable number of these are borrow- 
ed directly from our Paramarthasara, # and with them have 
been incorporated others, t'ne whole wort being painted over 
with Vaishnava colours, t Needless to say, it is valueless for 
the criticism of our book." ( J. K. A., 8. 1910, p. 708 ). 

The Madras edition of the work alluded to by Dr. 
Barnett Ws^iot been accessible to me. But I take it to be 
the same as the one printed originally in the Shabda-Kalpa- 
druma, sub voce ^37^, and afterwards republished by Bhuvan 
Chandra Vasak (Calcutta 1890 A. C. ) under the same name. 

If so, this work is the very Adhdra Karikas which Abhinava 
Gupta has admittedly adapted into his Parapdrtha-Sara. 

MSS, of the Adhdra Karikas— still known by this very 
title and not as Paramdrtha-tidra as the Calcutta, and presum- 
ably also the Madras text, is called — are procurable in Kashmir 
and I myself possess a copy. They contain practically the 
same text as the Calcutta (or the Madras) edition. This being 
the case, the text published in Calcutta ( and Madras ) is not 
perhaps so valueless for the criticism of the Paramdrtha-Sdra 
of Abhinava Gupta as Dr. Barnett would think. On the con- 
trary, a comparison of the two texts would prove, to my mind, 
interesting, and I propose to make it on another occasion. 

The priority of the text which is published in Calcutta 
( and Madras ) and which is the same text as is still known in 

Kashmir by the name of Adhdra Karikas i. e. the Karikas of 

Adhara or Sheghanaga, according to the traditional Kashmiri 


interpretation ( which is justified by the colophon of the 
Calcutta text ), and not as Paramdrtha-Sdra as said 
above, can also be proved, I think, by the fact that the verse 

^refold Hwg<rrc^ Sft Sfrr *n^ i 

quoted in his Spanda Pradtpikd ( Introduction ) by Utpala 
Vaishnava ( nots the famous author of the Pralyabhijnd 
Kdrikds), who must have lived earlier than Abhinava Gupta, 
is not to be found in the latter's Paramdrtha-Sdra while it 
occurs both in the Calcutta text as well as in the Kashmir MSS, 

* mm 

of the Adhdra Kdrikds. My reason for* saying that Utpala 
Vaishnava lived earlier than Abhinava Gupta and thereby claim- 
ing priority in age for the text quoted by him is, in the first 
^lace, a local Kashmiri tradition which places him before 
Abhinava Gupta. Secondly, while we know something, more or 
less, of almost all writers on Kashmir Shaivaism who flour- 
ish^* after Abhinava Gupta and all of whom show clear 
evidence of the influence of this great author, there is no 
trace whatever in the existing writings of Utpala Vaishnava 
either of this influence or of any allusion to Abhinava Gupta. 
This would be very strange as Utpala seems to have been 
a profound scholar and ajiotes from numerous works. Such a 
writer, if he had lived later than Abhinava Gnpta, could not 
have omitted to quote or allude to the one all dojninnnt and 
supreme authority on Shaivaism as Abhinava ^has been 
considered ever since he flourished in the 11th and 12th 
centuries of the Christian era. 

Moreover, what is now known as the Adhdra Kdrikds in 
Kashmir must b^ave been given that name after Abhinava 
Gupta composed his verses, which he not only adapted from 
the original Karikas attributed to Sheshanaga, but to which he 
gave even the very name of the original work. That the 
original work was known in , Kashmir also as Paramd lha~ 

Sara and not as Adhdra Kdrikds, prior to Abhinava's 
treatise, would seem to be established from the fact that 

these original verses are still known outside Kashmir by 
their ancient name of Paramdrtha-Sdra and not, as now in 

Kashmir, Adhdra Kdrikds, which name, as just stated, was given 
to the verses later, to distinguish them from Abhinava's work 
because this also came to be known as Paramdrtha-Sdra. 
If this be so, a Kashmiri author, who in quoting from a text 
alludes to it, as Utpala Vaishnava definitely does, not by its 

later Kashmiri designation of Adhdra Kdrikds but by its 


ancient and pre-Abhinava-Guptan name, Paramdrtha-Sdra } 
must have lived earlier than Abhinava, 

A work, therefore, which is quoted by so ancient and 
learned an author and authority on Kashmir Shaivaisin as 
Utpala Vaishnava must be regarded to be, cannot, I fear, 
be so summarily dismissed as Dr. Barnett is inclined to do. 

Finally, because the work in question is, as Dr. Barnett 
puts it, 'painted over with Vaishnava colours,' it need not 
necessarily for that reason be treated with contempt as Dr. 
Barnett would seem to have done. On the contrary, it would 
seem to furnish much food for thought — provided my theory 
as to the age of the text be correct — to a student of the 
Hindu systems of Philosophy. For it is written — as is evi- 
dent from even its opening verses and as is admitted explicitly 

by the commentator on Abhinava's Paramdrlha-Sdra — from 
the Sankhya point of view, i.e. it is a Sankhya treatise. It is, 

however, not the form of Sankhya which has been sometimes 
termed Nirlshvara but rather the oth^f form, the Vaishnava 

form — as it may be calleS, taking the suggestion from Dr. 
Barnett — which underlies the philosophy of some of the 
Purdftds and of the Manu-Samhitd £*nd is to be found treated 
in the Jtfahdbhdrata. And if a work on this type of the 
Sankhya was made the basis of an important treatise by 
Abhinava, that work itself must have been regarded as very 
important in those days, so much so that even Abhinava 
thought it necessary that the then powerful system of Shaiva- 
isin should be presented, evidently to command influence, in 
a similar form. From this fact we may also surmise the place 
which the Vai§hnava form of the Sankhya must have held in 

the thought of the country. It would indicate, too, that the 
Nirlshvara Sankhya, of which the principal authoritative 
statement must be found in the so-called very recent Sankhya 
Sutras ( and particularly in the much misunderstood Sutra, 
&rTTfa%: i. 92 ), is only a later growth, especially as there is 
hardly a passage which can be construed as an undoubted 
allusion to the Nirlshvara view, in the older texts either of 

Ishvara Krishna or of the Tattva Samdsa ( also called the 
Sankhya Siitras ). From all these considerations which I hope 
to develop on another occasion, the text published in Calcutta 
and Madras as the Paramdrtha-Sdra and now known in 
Kashmir as the Adhdra Kdrikds becomes an interesting study • 


B. THE SPANDA SHASTE A—This lays down the 
main principles of the system in greater detail and in a 
more amplified form than the Shiva Sutras, without, or 
hardly, entering into philosophical reasonings in their 

Of the treatises belonging to this Shastra, the first 
and foremost are: — 

i. The Spanda Sutras, generally 
called the Spanda Karikas. 

These Sutras (really verses, numbering 52 )* are based 
on the Shiva Sutras, on which they form a sort of running 
commentary; but a commentary which only enunciates 
the principles, no doubt in fuller detail, still without 
entering much into philosophical reasoning. The collection 
of the Spanda Sutrqsfia spoken ,of as a sjHfTJPST 2 £ & a 
work which gathers together the gieaning of the Shiva 

The Spanda Sutras are attributed by I^shemaraja 
to Vasugupta himself but they were composed most like- 
ly by the latter's pupil, Kallata. 

On these Sutras there is, 

ii. The Vriitl by Kallata. 

The Vritti, together with the Sutras or Karikas, is 
called the Spanda- Sarvasva. 

These are practically all of what now remains of the 
original Spanda Shastra. 

But on the Spanda Sutras there are the following 
commentaries : — 

1. As another example of verses being called Sutras, 
the Pratyabhijnd Sutras^ which are really verses, may be 

2. The author of the Spanda Sutras is referred to as 
w$*rt$^ 5 see Spanda PradipiM on Sutra 1, 



i. The Vivriti \>y Ramakantha, 1 a pupil of the great 
Utpala, the son of Udayakara and author of the Pratya- 

ii. The Pradipihd by Utpala — not the same as 
Utpala, the son of Udayakara, mentioned above. The 
author of the Pradipihd is traditionally known as Utpala 
Vaishnava to distinguish him from his great namesake. 
Utpala Vaishanva lived later than Utpala author of the 
Pratyabhijnd but earlier than Abhinava Gupta. 2 

iii. The [Spanda Sandoha by Kshemaraja. It is 
a commentary on only the first Sutra or KarikS, but 
explains the purport of the whole work, 

iv. Spanda Nirnaya, also by Ksheniaraja. Of this 
work only the first section, called tfce first Nihshyanda, is 

1. Ramakantha ^as most likely a pupil of Utpala, 
author of the Pratyabhijnd, generally called Utpaladeva 
or Utpalackarya, and not of Utpala Vaishnava, author of the 
Spanda Pradipikd^ who was undoubtedly later than Utpala- 
deva whom he quotes. He would seem to have lived some- 
what later than our Ramakantha also. For Utpala Via?h- 
nava quotes Anandavardhana, author of the Dhvanyaloka* 
Now Anandavardhana was a contemporary of Muktakana 
{Raj. Tar, } v. 34 ) who was an elder brother of Ramakantha 
and therefore must have lived also about the same time as 
the latter. And if Utpala ^Vfoishnava lived after Ananda- 
vardhana and therefore after the latter's contemporary, 
Muktakana, as he undoubtedly did, he must have been also 
later than Ramakantha who was Muktakana' s brother. 

2. See above note 1; also p. 13. Utpala Vaishnava was 
the son of Trivikrama and was born at Narayanasthana 
which is represented by either the modern Narastan in the 
Tral valley, where there still exists an old temple, or the exist- 
ing village of Narayanthal below Baramula (most likely 
the former). 


^)ulable in Kashmir — at least I ha\^ not as yet succeeded 
in securing a complete MS. of it. 1 

be regarded as the tnanana- or vtc/iara-Shastra, i. e. 
philosophy proper, 2 of the Trika, It deals rationally with 
the doctrines, tries to support them by reasoning and 
refutes the views of opponents. Indeed, the method of 
the founder of this Shastra, the Siddha Somananda, 
inoslr probably a pupil of Vasugup&ta, is said to have 
been 'the exhaustive treatment of the doctrines of his 
own system as well as of those of opponents'. 3 Somananda 
is also spoken of as the originator of reasoning ( %&q 
^ft), 4 namely, in support of the Trika, 

The first work which laid the foundation of this 
branch was 

t ftie Shiva Drishti 
by SomSnanda himself. As thet name implies, Shiva 

1. Dr. Buhler's M& of the work is entered in his list 
as a complete one. I have not seen it. But to •judge from 
the number of leaves of which the MS. is said to consist I am 
very doubtful if it extends beyond the first Nihshyanda. 

2. See Hindu Realism on Hindu conception of philosophy. 

3. star ( ^TH^qi^rct ) k feft &ft 

wh^K 'irwtar fa'3ft°r <* %^ *n i 

Para. Trm. Viv. fol. 71. qs. 

4. c crfl ^ftnftfgrR^ \* 

q* *&m&&n %fo 3?r^ 

Tantrdh i. 10. with introductory Viv. 

Here Somananda is spoken of as crfe*r «Rcft ( viz. in regard 

to ^T^t^rcirafHirr) and Utpala as its *n??qrar as we positively 

know the latter was. Needless to say the plural use of *pf and 

sttctts only implies %w I 



Dri$hti, which is the s&me&s Shiva Darshana, 1 was #ar 
excellence the philosophy of Kashmir Shaivaism. Unfortun- 
ately the work is not to be had now in its completeness 
— at least I have not succeeded yet in securing a 
complete MS. of it nor have I heard of its existence 
anywhere in Kashmir. So far I have seen only the first- 
four Ahnikas of the work ( the fourth in fragments). But 
it must have been of a considerable size and must have 
extended at least tp seven Ahnikas, if not more. 2 

Somananda composed a Vritti of his own on the 
Shiva Drishti. But this, with other works of his, are 
lost now and we know them only by name and from 
quotations from them. 

1. The technical term ^^r, now meaning a system of 
Philosophy, no doubt originally meant a * View } of things, — 
* a certain way of looking at things in general ' — and in this 
sense was certainly interchangeable ^with the word ?%. The 
Kashmir authors would seem to have a preference for this 
latter temaVhich they often used in the technical sense of 
^fcf. They were, in this regard, quite like the Buddhist 
writers who most often used efe ( or its Pali form f^% ) 
when they meant 3[3pr. But even in the Buddhist literature, 
as in Kashmiri authors, the use of the word ^r ( or its equi- 
valent Pali ^r) is not unknown, We' find it in its 
Pali form, among others, in the Saleyyaka Sutta of the 
Majjhima-Nikaya (Maj. Ni. I. v. 1.) and, in its Sanskrit 
form, in such works as the Tanlrcdoka Viveka ( cn^^rt ^ft; see 
note 2, p. 2 above ) and Utpala's commentary on the Shiva 

Drishti, Ahn. iii. 9, 

In Kashmir the word ^ also would seem to have been 
used for ^Jk , meaning Philosophy, L e. a certain reasoned 
1 view ' of things, as, for instance, in the passage: — *c«n fl[ ^ 
Hftafcn ?r ^fcraft ^ Para. Trim. Viv.> fol. 125. 

2. A verse quoted in Para Trim. Viv. (fol. 124) 
is said to be taken from the 7th Ahnika of the Shiva Drishti. 


The next and now the most important existing work 
of this Shastra is 

ii the Ishvara Pratyabhijnd 
or simply the Pratyabhijnd Sutras by Utpala, 1 the 
famous pupil of Somananda. It is a work in verses which 
are called Sutras. 

It is a shorter work than the Shiva Drishti 
which even in its existing parts contains more than 307 
anushtubh verses, while the total number, of verses in the 
Pratyabhijha Sutras is only 190. 2 

In his own Sutras or verses, Utpala summarised the 

teaching of his master Somananda. Indeed, his Ishvara 
Pratyabhijnd is spoken of as only u the reflection of the 
wisdom taught by Sdmananda. " 3 

Being a shorter and more compact work the 
PratyabliiJTid would *^em to have superseded, to a great 
extent at least, the Shiva Drislih of Somananda. Indeed, 

the Pratyabhijnd assumed such an important position 

»■ i ■ - ' ■ '■-.. ■ - ■ » - — — - — — — — — — 

1 # This Utpala was, as said above, other than the 
author of the Spanda Paradipikd. • 

2. Viz.:— 

88 verses in the First Adhikara ( subdivided 

into 4 Ahnikas ) 
53 verses in the Second Adhikara 

( subdivided likewise into 4 Ahnikas ) 
31 do in the Third Adhikara 

( subdivided into 2 Ahnikas ) 
and 18 do in the Fourth Adhikara 

( making only one Ahnika ) 
There is a discrepancy in the numbering of the verses in 
different Mss. leading at first to the notion that the total 
numbers in them really vary. But this is not the case. They 
all contain the same number of verses which for each Ahnika 
has been fixed by the Commentary. 

lehv. Pra Vim., Intro. verse % 


that the whole system of the Shaiva Philosophy of Kash- 
mir would seem to have come to be known, outside 
Kashmir, as the Praiyabhijhd Darshana, under which 
name Madhavacharya treats of the Trika in his Sarva 
Darshana Sangraha. 1 

However this may be, round the Sutras or Karikas 
of Utpala there grew up a mass of literature; and the 
Pratyabhijnd Sutras, together with the various Com- 
mentaries on them and with other works which drew 'their 
inspiration from the Sutras , now constitute perhaps the 
greater portion of the existing writings on Kashmir 

Of the commentaries on the Pratyabhijnd Sutras, 
the following are still available, either complete or in 
parts : — 

a. The Vritti by Utpala himself ( available only in- 
complete — up to verse c 161 i. e. III. ii. J). ) 2 

a. The Pratyabhijnd Vimarshim by Abhinava 
Gupta ( complete ), also called the Laghvl Vritti i. c. 
the Shofter Commentary. 

c. The Pratyabhijnd Vivriti Vimarshini, also 
called the Byihail Vritti or Longer Commentary, by the 
same author. 

1. What Madhavacharya describes as Shaiva Darshana 
is, as a dualistic system, fundamentally different from the 
monistic Philosophy which constitutes Kashmir Shaivaism. 
See below Part II; also Bhand&rhar> p. 81, 

2. Utpala wrote adso a Tlka on his Vritti It must 
have been called ' Vivriti' and is practically lost now. I have 
seen only a few leaves of a mutilated Ms. of the work. For 
the rest, we are left to infer what it must have been like from 
the pratlkas quoted in the PratyabhijM- Vivriti- Vimarshini 
( or the Brihatl Vritti as it is also called ) of Abhinava Gupta. 

Utpala also wrote a commentary on his Master's Shiva 
Drishti, but it can now be had, like the latter frork, only in 


This latter work is a Commentary really on the lost 
Tika, presumably called the Vivriti, on the Sutras by 
Utpala himself.Complete MSS. of this work are very rare 
in Kashmir. I have seen only one complete MS. of the 
work and have heard of the existence of only one other. 1 

In addition to these three main divisions of the 
Shaiva literature there are also 

(a) a number of compositions called "Stotras," which 
gbfc expression to the Philosophical doctrines of the 
system in a devotional form and occupy the same position 
in this system as the Yedanta Stotras do in tho Vedanta 
system ; and 

( 6 ) a number of compositions on the daily practices 
and ceremonials to be performed by a Shaiva. 

These two classes, however, may be regarded as 
forming parts of thcwthrec mai$ groups named above — 
class ( a ) belonging to the groups B and C, and ( b ) to A. 

Finally there is. the great work, Tantraloka, by 
Abhinava Gupta, which forms a class by itself and 
deals comprehensively with Shaivaism in all It* aspects. 2 

1. The MS. (in Devanagari characters ) of this work 
purchased for the Government by Dr. Buhler ( No. 4Gi in 
his list ) is also complete. 

2. a. MSS. of this work, so far as the text alone is 
concerned, are plentiful. It had a commentary also, called 
Viveka; but of this work complete MSS. are very rare, — 
I might say, nob available. , All MSS. of the work that I 
have seen end at the 10th chapter. Dr. Biihler's MS, of 
the Viveka which he procured at Delhi, is entered in his list 
as complete ; but I doubt it very much. For what is given 
as an extract from the beginning of this MS. ( See lieport 
pp. xxix and cxlviii ) is really the beginning of the Para 
Trimshikd Vivara^a of Abhinava Gupta and not of the 
Viveka at all. 

6. In addition to the works mentioned above, the 
Paramdrtha-Sdra of Abhinava Gupta with its Commentary 


Of these three tranches of the Kashmir Shaiva 
literature the first, that is the Agama Shastra, is 
attributed to Shiva himself who is represented in the 
Tantra section of this Shastra as explaining the doctrines 
and practices of Shaivaism, generally to Parvatl in answer 
to her questions, while He is believed to have Himself 
composed the Shiva Sutras, in which He laid down the 
principles in a compact form and which were revealed to 
Vasugupta ; the secpnd was originated either by Vaflu- 
gupta himself or by his pupil Kallata; while the third 
was founded by Siddha Somananda. 

Leaving aside the Agama Shastra, including the 
Shiva Sutras of which the authorship is attributed to 

by his pupil Yogaraja and the Pratyabhijnd-Ifridaya of 
Kshemaraja may be mentioned as important works on the 
system. For the true character of tf;.e # ParamariharSara t 
see ante p. 10, note 3. PrdtyabhijiidHridaya is a small 
compendium and may be said to bear, more or less, the same 
relation to the system as the Vedahta-Sara of Sadananda 
bears to the "Vedanta system. 

Both these works are included in this series (the Kashmir 
Series of Texts and Studies ). 

c. The classification given above of the main branches of 
Shaiva literature of Kashmir is not what would be regarded as 
orthodox. The followers of the system no doubt recognise a 
three-fold classification but on a different principle. According 
to this method the three classes of the literature are called 

( a ) Para ( Higher ), # 

( b ) Apara ( Lower ) . 
and ( c ) Parapara ( Higher-lower i. c. all-inclusive ). 

What deals with the purely doctrinal aspect of the subject, 
either as a system of Faith or Philosophy ( ^trjt^r ), such as 
the Shiva Drishti, is termed Para, while the branch dealing 
chiefly with the practical and ritual part (ftrciirwrc), like the 
Svachchhanda Tantra, is called Apara. The Parapara combines 
in it the nature of both, and is therefore regarded as superior 
to either. 


Shiva Himself, we have to regard Vasugupta and Soma- 
nanda as the human founders of the Advaita Shaivaism 
which is peculiar to Kashmir. 

Of these two again, while Vasugupta gave out the 
doctrines merely as revelations and articles of faith, 
Som&nanda, who was most likely a pupil of Vasugupta, 1 
laid the the foundation of their philosophy. 

Of the personality and lineage of Vasugupta we 
knd\v little from himself. If ho recorded anything on 
these points, it is lost with most of his writings. What- 
ever little we know now of him is from his pupils, who 
tell us that he lived in retirement, as a holy sage, in the 
charming valley of what is now called the Harwan stream 
(the ancient Shadarhad-vana ) behind the Shalimar 
garden near Srinagar. 2 

And we can al«o«gather from the Raja TaraiiginZ, v. 
66, which states that Kallata flourished in the reign of 
king Avanti-Varman of Kashmir %. e. in the latter half of 
the 9th Christian century, that Vasugupta, Kallata'sGuru, 
must have taught not much earlier than the fiijst half of 
the same century, i. c, either at the end of theSih or the 
beginning of the 9 th century A. C. 

While we know nothing more than this about 
Vasugupta, Somananda, the founder of the Pratyabhijna 
Shastra tells us a good deal about his lineage. We find 
the following account given by Somananda himself: — 

3?^fr 5Tf% STR^S ^f £«W«Itat^ • 

wlf^y^r ^n srrcr Tf# ^ ?rre^n h 

1. See below p. 25. 

2. See illustration No. 1 ( of the Mahadevagiri and its 
valley ) in the Shiva Sutra VimarshinI (vol. I of this series). 


rRT- ST WI«U^«H$I^Vr SIT^T VR&\% I 

srsr$ jtrst 5^ ^^cM^m^cb^ ii 

srtefqr n&n 3ft sr^ns «i*<n>iwwd : <rs^ n 
g'PnfT^iy+mi d*OvKi^ st 31 Raft 1 
<ren?n f%%n snfq 3d ^rtrt ^t% 11 

ST rRT ^Mufo^TT STST^ WTSTT ?pHj; I 
*3FTt<M<H« fa^d^sfq- 3TOT <T3Tr II 
fST^^r§[^t?^TT fsT^T ^ ^31 I 
^ N cMJrf^ i : 3^: ^ 5 11<l l f^ l K$ : II 
st *^iP^m^u< ^Tf^T^rarm; ^^ I 

WI«uft44M^I44W rRTt STCreraift*: II 

<r*t: st ^ ^wr 4$jft$MHiat snr^ I 
ipbtt sr ^RTf^rt <m1(4444g 3333: 11 
rTFTT^r^ st wrap* wm\ ii&m* : \ 
^TR^fi^cbw^Tcsr ^r^ rTOTfe*: 11 
TOn^far srippr: srtarta*iRfT fan ii 1 

1. The above passage is found quoted in certain MSS. 
where it is introduced with the words — aspR fifcraeffe^. From 
this it is clear that it originally occurred in the now lost 
Vritli composed by Somananda himself on his own great 
work Shiva Drishti, 

We learn from this extract that Somananda claimed to be 
descended from the sage Durvasas, — who had been commanded 

by Shiva as Shrlkantha to teach anew the Shivagama, 

through the line of that sage's 'mind born' son Tryambaka whom 
Durvasas appointed to spread the knowlege of the Trika aspect 
of the Shivagama as we are told in the Tantraloka (above p. 6 
with note 1). Up to the 15th generation the race of Tryambaka 
was continued by sons who had all been produced by their 
respective parents by the power of the mind, i. e. they were 
all born not of woman's "womb but of the mind and were 
thus 'mind born sons.' The representative, however, of the 
15th generation violated this rule and being enamoured of 
the daughter of a certain Brahmin took her for a wife and had 
born of her a son. This son, who was named Sangamaditya, 
the first in the line to be born of a woman's womb, came, in 
the course of his wanderings, to Kashmir where he settled. Of 
him there was born Varshaditya who had a son named Arun- 
aditya, Arunaditya had a son, Ananda by name. It is of this 
Ananda that Somananda was born. 


While thus we know something of Somananda's 
descent in his own words, we know the period when he 
must have lived from that of the great scholar and Shaiva 
teacher, Mahamaheshvara Abhinava Gupta, who lived, as 
we know from his own statements, towards the end of the 
tenth and the first quarter of the 11th Christian century 
and who was the fourth in succession from Somananda in 
a line of spiritual discipleship. Somananda was followed 
by his famous pupil Utpala, son of Udayakara and author 

of the Ishvara Pratyabhijna Karikas and many other 
works; and he by Lakshmana Gupta who was the Guru 
of Abhinava Gupta. Somananda thus having flourished 
four generations ealier than Abhinava Gupta must have 
lived towards the end of the ninth century, 1 and as said 
above, 2 was most likely a pupil of Vasugupta 3 who 
flourished at about the same period or somewhat earlier. 

1. Biihler's Report p. 82. 

2. Ante p. 17. # * m 

3. In the Tlka on the Sharada-Tilaka, the following 
passage occurs : — 

Of the names mentioned herein, Somananda, Utpala 
Lakshmana, Abhinava and Kshemaraja form, as we know, 
a line of spiritual succession i. e. $$qx*mj. It is also evident 
from the context that the passage is intended to record 
the line of spiritual succession of the Shaiva teachers of 
Kashmir. This being so, and also in view of the fact that 
five names out of the seven mentioned in the list do 
represent such a line, it is quite reasonable to conclude that 
the remaining two also belong to the same line. If this 
conclusion be right, then Sofnananda was undoubtedly a 
pupil of Vasugupta, who on his own part, had for his Guru 
Shiva himself as Shrlkantha, as stated in the Kashmiri 
tradition found embodied in the following verse 

cP^Tijfrnfocn^ *Ti£*Rt ^fcrawsr n T antral. Ahn. i. 9, 

The age of Somananda also points to the same conclusion, 
specially as we find nothing antagonistic to Vasugupta's view 
in the writings of Somananda who only supports by 
philosophic reasoning what had been taught by Vasugupta 
chiefly as matters of faith and religion. 


Thus it will be seen that the origin of both the 
Advaita Shaiva Faith and Philosophy of Kashmir — as the 
teachings of the Agama and S panda Shastras on the one 
hand and of the Pratyabhijiia Shastra on the other may 
respectively be called — must be traced to the end of the 
8th or the beginning of the 9th century A. G; and they 
were then founded by men who were both regarded as 
holy sages. 

One of them, ^mananda, claimed descent from* the 
great sage Durvasas himself and his "mind-born" son 
Tryambaka, while about the other, wonderful stories are 
told. One of these stories is connected with the origin of 
the Shiva Sutras themselves. 

We are told in the Shiva Sutra Vimarshim, that 
Vasugupta, while residing in his hermitage below the 
Mahadeva peak, 1 had one night a dj;eam in which Shiva, 
who was moved to compassion to see the world immersed 
in spiritual darkness, appeared and disclosed to the sage 
the existence of certain Sutras — embodying the essence 
of the r Shiva Shasaua — which were to be found 
inscribed on a rock The rock had been, Vasugupta was 
informed in the dream, lying in a certain part of the valley, 
with the inscribed side turned downwards and hidden 
from the profane gaze. But if he went there in the morn- 
ing, he was also told in the dream, the rock would turn over 
of its own accord by his very touch and he should then 
learn the Sutras of which the meaning would be revealed 
to him and he should teach them to worthy pupils. A 
huge rock represented in the second illustration published 
in the Shiva -Sutra-Vimar shim is still pointed out as the 
one upon which these Sutras were found inscribed, 
although no trace whatever of any inscription on it is now 
to be detected. The rock goes by the name of Shankar- 
pal which may be merely a corrupt form of the 

1. See illustration No. 1 in the Shiva-Sutra Vimar- 
shim. The peak is indicated there by an arrow-mark. 


Sanskrit Shankaropaia ; and the Sutras found thereon are, 

according to Kshemaraja, the very ones which were ex- 
pounded by him in his Vimarshini and which are now 
printed as a whole, for the first time as far as I know. 1 

There is, however, a different version of this tradition. 2 
It has been recorded by at least three writers, Rajanaka 

1. A portion of the Sutras together with a translation 
of a part of the Vimarshini appeared in the Theosophist 
( Madras ) for 1908, The author of this translation, labouring 
far away from Kashmir and ignorant of local tradition, 
naturally made many mistakes. He did not even know that 
Mahadeva-Giri meant a particular mountain in the valley 
of Kashmir and took it for a name of Kailasa. 

2. Perhaps the earliest record of the version of the 
tradition which states that the Sutras were imparted to 
Vasugupta by Shiva •hfhiself in a dream, is to be found in the 
Spanda VHtti by Kallata who says : — 

But it knows nothing of the Sutras having been found 
inscribed on a rock as related by Kshemaraja, who most 
likely records a later development of the original tradition 
which simply stated that Vasugupta got the Sutras, not in 
the ordinary way from a mortal Guru, but from Mahadeva 
himself and in a dream in which Mahadeva appeared to him 
and taught him the Sutras. 

This would also account for Shiva himself ( as Shri- 
kantha ) having been regarded as the Guru of Vasugupta as 
stated in the passage quoted above from the Shdradd- Tttaka- 
Tlka and maintained by local tradition. 

About the authenticity of the above verse, however, as a 
composition of Kallata, there is some doubt. For while it 
is no doubt found at the end of the MSS. of the Vritti by 
Kallata, it was evidently regarded, by the scribe of the 
Manuscript (or its archetype) now in the India Office 
Library in London and entered in its Catalogue of Sanskrit 


Rama or Ramakantha, 1 author of the Spanda Vivriti, 
Utpala, son of Trivikrama and author of the Spanda 
Pradlpikd and finally by Bhaskara, son of Divakara 
and author of the Shiva Sutra Vdrttika. According to 
this version the Sutras, although composed by Shiva 
himself, 2 were taught to Vasugupta by a Siddha % e. a 

MSS. ( p. 832 ), as belonging to the Vivriti of Rama- 
kantha. In Dr. Bhandarkar's MS. also ( Report p. 77 ), the 
verse is similarly treated i. e. as belonging to the Vivriti 
( or Vivara^a ) of Ramakantha. 

But if the verse is not a composition of Kallata, it is 
equally doubtful if it is either by Ramakantha to whom it is 
evidently attributed in the India Office and Bhandarkar MSS. 
It not only does not occur in the MSS. of the Vivriti I have 
seen but Ramakantha could not have written it without 
contradicting himself. For while in Ijbis verse, he would be 
saying, — if he were really its author — that Vasugupta was 
taught the Shiva Sutras by Mahadeva in a dream, he has 
said just a few lines above, in explaining the 52nd Karika 
(arnr^^^i^f^r &c.) that his master received these very 
things — for the words ^H^cfT^^^rfcT^^cT^^cT^ cannot possibly 
mean anything else— no£ from Shiva but from a Siddha. 
Surely he could not coutradict himself so soon, 

1. This Rama or Ramakantha is said to have been 
one of the pupils of Utpala, author of the Pratyabhijnti Sutras $ 
and as such a fellow student of Lakshmana, Guru of 
Abhinava Gupta, He therefore either was a contemporary 
of or lived slightly earlier than Utpala Vaishijava, son of 
Trivikrama and author, of the Spanda Pradlpika. This 
Utpala lived as we know later than Utpala, the Pratayabhijna- 
kara, but must have been senior to Abhinava Gupta as I 
have tried to show above (p. 10-14, note 3. ) 

2. See Vdrttika where the Sutras are often introduced 
with such phrases as q*mr% *t^>vx' or fccn qjmtfr*rct. Comp, 
also the closing statement of the same work which is 


super-human being with high spiritual attainments. In 
other words Vasugupta did not find them inscribed on a 
rock — their existence in this form having been revealed 
to him by Shiva in a dream — as related by Kshemaraja. 
This is most likely the original version of the tradition, 
unless we regard what is recorded by Kallata, who was 
a pupil of Vasugupta himself, as the original tradition, 
which, while not knowing anything of the Sutras having 

been found inscribed on a rock, did state, as said above, 
that they were taught by Shiva himself — and not by a 
Siddha — in a dream. Kshemaraja is, as far as I know, the 
only writer who gives the other version. It, however, seems 
certain that although the original version knew nothing 
of the Sutras having been found inscribed on a rock and 

of Shiva himself having given Vasugupta, in a dream, the 
information of theirexistence i# this form, it did know 
that either a Siddha or Shiva himself taught the Sutras 
to Vasugupta, not in the ordinary way but in a dream, 
and that the Sutras so taught to Vasugupta were the 
composition of Shiva himself. ' o 

However this may be, and however Vasugupta may 
have obtained them, it is clear that the Shiva Sutras as 
taught by him laid the foundation of the Advaita 
Shivaism of Kashmir — or, of the Trika, as it is called. 

It is also clear from all accounts that the chief agent 
by whom Vasugupta had his teachings promulgated was his 
pupil Kallata, who lived, according to the Raja Tarangini, 
in the days of king Avanti-Varman ( 855-883 A. C. ), as 
said above. But there is a difference of opinion as to how 
this was done. According to the tradition, which is record- 
ed by Kshemaraja 1 and which would seem in later times 

1 # See his Introductions to the Spanda Sandoha and 
the Spanda Nivqaya and also Shiv* Su.Vim. %*> \. 


to have been generally accepted 1 in Kashmir, Vasugupta 
himself wrote the Spanda Sutras or Kdrikds basing 
them on the Shiva Sutras, which had been revealed to 
him. And the Spanda Sutras thus composed by himself 
were taught by him, along with the Shiva Sutras , to 
Kallata and other pupils, while Kallata spread their 
knowledge by writing commentaries on them. 

But what seems to be the older, and perhaps correct, 
account is given, among others, by Rama, author of 'the 
Spanda Vivriti, Utpala Vaishnava 2 and Bhaskara, author 
of the Shiva Sutra Vdrttika. The last named of the 
three, Bhaskara, gives the tradition in some detail. He 

" Formerly, on the holy Mahadeva mountain, the 

Shiva Sutras with their mysterious meanings were 

• • • 

1. To judge from the colophons of MSS. of the 
Karikas only ( without the commentaries ) wherein they are 
always ascribed to Vasugupta. 

2. Ramakantha explains the phrase gswcrft at the 
end of the Kdrikds as the words of Vasugupta thereby 
evidently meaning that the Kdrikds were composed by Kallata 
embodying therein the 'words' of his master. 

Utpala Vaishnava says :•— 

sre^n^g^q^f^rpr %*ti ftfraT^ « Sp. Prad. $ Intro. 

He also reads the following at the end as part of the 
original ; — 

This verse, however, is not to be found in the MSS. of the 
Spanda Vritti by Kallata or of the Vivrili by Rairakantha. 


revealed to the Guru, Vasugupta, by the teachings of a 
Siddha. He then transmitted them to the revered and 
learned Kallata Bhatta. Having received, in this way, 
these Sutras in four parts, he afterwards expounded three 
parts out of the four by his own Spanda Sutras and the 
last part by the Tiled called the Tattvartha-Chintamani" } 

1. Translated, more or leas freely, from tne following 
orgkial : — , 

The word ft*& incite above doas not refer, as might be 
supposed, to the techincal name of the system or to the triple 
principles of ftra-srfa-arg which that name implies, but to the 
three divisions out of the four into which the Shiva Sutras 
would seem to have been divided. Only three di^sUns of the 
Shiva Siitras, alluded to here as ft^r, very likely formed the basis 
of the Spanda Sutras or Karikas, while the fourth division of 
the Sutras were apparently reserved for a different treatment, 
namely, in the form of a commentary, properly so called, on 
them. This commentary on the fourth division of the Shiva 
Sutras, as distinguished from the Kdrikas written on the other 
three divisions, was called Tattvdrtha Chintamafyi and is 
now lost* We now know it only from quotations made from 
it, as for instance in the Shiv. Su! Vim., Para Trim. Viv. } 
fol. 62 and Pratybhijnd Hridaya. 

Kallata would seem to have written a Commentary, pro- 
perly so called, also on the three divisions of the Shiva Sutras 
which apparently formed the basis of the Spanda Kdrikas. It 
seems to have been called Madhuvdhim, to judge from the 
following passage occuring in the Prat. Viv. Vim. (ByihatI) : — 



From the above it would appear that Vasugupta did 

no more than simply transmit the Sutras with their 
meanings to Kallata who spread their knowledge by 
writing explanatory treatises on them, one of these 
treatises being called the Spanda Sutras, which are no 
other than what are now generally called the Spanda 
Kdrikas. 1 It is however possible that Vasugupta wrote 
a work called Spanddmrita? which Kallata made use of 
in composing his Spanda Sutras or Kdrihds. Indeed his 
Spanda Sutras may not be anything more than the 
Spanddmrita of Vasugupta with only a few additions and 
alterations of his own, 3 very much like the Paramdrtha- 

As the commentary Tattvdratha Chintdmani is expressly 
said to have been written on the fourth division of the Shiva 
Sutras, this other commentary, Madhuvdhinl, was composed 
very likely on the three dfcrisions of tfle* Shiva Sutras which 
formed the basis of the Spanda Kdrikas. 

The statement that the Spanda Kdrihds were based only 
on three, oyt of the four, divisions of the Shiva Sutras would 
seem to Be justified by the fact that Kallata's own Vritti on the 
Spanda Kdrikas divides the latter work also into three sections 
(not four as in the Vivriti of Ramakantha who was a later 

1. That the Spanda Kdrikas and the Spanda Sutras 
are the same may be gathered from Shiv. Su. Vim., <jo ^ and 
also from references made explicitly to the Kdrikas as Sutras, 
for instance, by Ramakantha speaking of them as ^^i^^rr^t. 

2. See the verse quoted in note 2, p. 27 above. 

3. This theory, if accepted, has the advantage that it 
would account for the phrase gs*rrcrft in the 52nd Karika 
referred to above ( p. 30 ). It would also explain why the 
divisions of the Kdrikas according to Kallata's own Vritti are 
called Nihshyandas or streams, namely, of the 'amrita of 
Spanda. 1 And if Kallata retained even the name given to the 
sections of the original, it is not likely that he altered much 
of the original composition of his master. 


Sara of the great Abhinava Gupta, who in later times 
adapted the old Adhara Kdrikds attributed to Sshesha Ndga 
to something suited to his own purpose. 1 Kallata wrote 
on the Spanda Kdrikds also a short Vrilti which, to- 
gether with the Karikas, is called Spanda Sarvasva. In 
the Spanda Sai*vasva> Kallata 'gathered together 2 ' the 
meaning of the Shiva, Sutras; while evidently on some of 
the latter he wrote a commentary, the TattavarthaChintd- 
nxam y and also perhaps another, named /,he Madlmmhini? 
and together with these he handed down the Shiva 
Sutras to his pupil Pradyumna Bhatta who was also a 
cousin of his, being a son of his maternal uncle. Pradyumna 
Bhatta in his turn handed the teaching to his son Prajnar- 
juna and he to his pupil Mahadeva. The latter again 
transmitted it on to his son Shilkantha Bhatta from 
whom Bhaskara, spn t of Divakara, received them and 
wrote his Vdrttila on them. 4 

It would also seem to account, on the one hand, for the use 
of the words tftaHS^ Jffid^rc in the verse quoted in note 2, 
p. 27 above, and, on the other, for the colophons found in all 
MSS. which I have seen of the Spanda Karikas by them- 
selves, in which they are invariably attributed to Vasugupta. 

1 # See above p. 10, note 3. 

2. The 'Spanda Kdrikds' are spoken of as a sst^st; see 
above note 2, p. 15; also '^ro? ffl^TV in Sp. Prad. Intro. 

3, See noto 1, p. 31 above. 

Continuation of passage quoted in note 1, p, 31. The *rr in 
the first line of this portion of the extract refers of course 
to Kallata. 


In the Varttilca of Bha&kara, therefore, we have got 
what Kallata must have taught as, in all essentials, the 
meaning of the Shiva Sutras. And we can see at once 
from it that Kallata handed down the teaching merely as 
religious doctrines, which he no doubt explained in some 
detail without, or hardly, entering into any philosophical 
reasoning in their support. 

Yet in a country like India, where philosophic 
reasoning has from early times played such an important 
part, it was essential for any system of religion to give 
full philosophical reasons in its support, if it was at all to 
hold its own, especially in an age when Buddhism exercised 
such a great influence as it did in Kashmir about the time 
the Advaita Shaivaism as represented by the Trika mado 
its appearance. This need must have been felt almost from 
the beginning — a need winch was n^b-met by the writings 
of Kallata. And it was undoubtedly to meet this necessity 
that there grew up another line of activity supplementing 
that followed by Kallata. This was started by the Siddha 
Somana'nda, who like Kallata may have been a pupil of 
Vasugupta himself. 1 While Kallata may be said to 
have handed down the doctrines as a system of religion, 
Somananda supplied the logical reasoning in their sup- 
port and made a system of Advaita Philosophy of what 
was at first taught as a system of faith, and thus founded 
the Pratyabhijna Shastra which is mentioned above and 
which is so named after the Pratyabhijna Sutras or 
Kdrikds of his pupil Utpala. 

And as, for the success of a religion in a philosophic 
land like India, it was necessary to lay greater stress 
on the philosophical reason of the religion, the work of 
Somananda was carried on in greater detail by Utpala and 
Abhinava Gupta, his great successors in the line of 

1. Above note 3, p. 25. 

35 , 

discipleship. This branch, therefore, foims perhaps a far 
larger portion of the Shaiva literature of Kashmir than 
either of the other two. Indeed, the Pratyabhijfia method 
of treating the Shaiva doctrines came to be regarded as so 
important that it was adopted, more or less, practically by 
all subsequent writers on the subject. Among these later 
writers are to be mentioned : 

1. Ktfhemaraja, who was the aulhor of the Shiva 
Sutra Vimarshinl and several other works, 1 and who 
was a pupil of Abhinava Gupta; 

2. Yogaraja, author of the Commentary on 
Abhinava Guptas Paramartha-Sdra'Sangraha and a 
pupil apparently of both Abhinava Gupta and 
Kshcmaifija; 2 

1. The chief existing works o£ Kshemaraja arc:- 

Pratyabhijnd llridaya 

S panda Sandoha 

Spanda Nirr.iaya ' 




( only a portion of this work exists incorpo- 
rated in SShivopadh} fiya's commentary on the 
Vijftdna Bltairava. Sec the concluding verso 
of the latter work ). 

Shiva Sutra l r rilti(?) 
( see ante p. 9 ) * 

Shiva Sutra Vimarshini 

Stava Chintdmani Tlkd 

Utpala-Stotr avail Tlkd 


Tattva Sandoha 

&c. &c. 

2. See the second of the introductory verses and the 
last verse of his Paramartha*Sdra Vivriti. 



3- Jayaratha, commentator on the Tantrdloka of 
Abhinava Gupta; and 

4. Shivopadhyaya, author of a Commentary on the 
Vijri&na, Bhairava. 

Kshemaraja being a pupil of Abhinava Gupta must 
have lived and written in the eleventh Christian century 
and Yogaraja, being junior to Kshemaraja, may be con- 
sidered as having continued the labours of his masters 
till either the end of the same or the beginning of the 
12th century ; whereas Jayar a tha and Shivopadhyaya must 
have lived in the 12th 1 and the 18th 2 centuries A. 0. 
respectively. After this date we do not find any great 
writer on the Shaivaism of Kashmir and the history of 
its literature may be regarded as closed, although 
the Shaiva faith is still living in tk& valley and there 

are also a few Pandits 3 who still continue the study 
of its literature at least in some of its branches. The 
study of ipost of them, however, does not go beyond 
the Spdnda-Ktirihds and the Pratyabhinjd-Hridaya, a 
compendium of only 20 Sutras by Kshemaraja. 

Such is the end of the Shaivaism of Kashmir and 
of its history which may be summarised in a tabulated 
form as follows: — 

1. Buhler's Report pp. 82 and cxlix to cliv. 

2. For an account and date of Sukha Jivana in whose 
time Shivopadhyaya lived and wrote, see Hasan Shah's Persian 
History of Kashmir. 

3. The word Pandit as used in Kashmir now unfortu- 
nately means any descendant of a Bhahmin family who still 
keeps within the fold of the Hindu community, no matter how 
ignorant and illiterate he may be, and there are hundreds, if 
not thousands, of 'Pandits* who are absolutely illiterate. 




Kallata ( pupil of 
above ) spread the 
teachings of his master 
chiefly as a religion ; 
lived in the second 
half of the 9th 
century A. C. 

Pradyumna Bhatta 
( cousin, i.e. matuleya, 
and pupil ). 

Prajiiarjuna ( son 
and pupil ) 

Mahadeva Bhatta 
( pupil )• 

Guru of Vasugupta and also, 
as Shiva, author and promulgator 

of the Agamas ( Tantras ) and 
author of the Shiva Sutras. 

Flourished in the first half of 
the 9th century A. C. and in- 
spirational ly received the Shiva 
Sutras which laid the foundation 
of Kashmir Shaivaism or the 
Trika, as a system of Religion. 

Somananda, probably also a 
pupil of Vasugupta and lived 
towards the end of the 9th 
century A. C. Supplied philoso- 
phical reasonings in support of 
his master's teachings and thus 
laid the foundation of the 
Advaita Shaivaism, or ' Trika' 
as a system of Philosophy. 

Utpala or Utpalacharya, pupil 

of Somananda; wrote the lshvara- 
Pratyabhijnd Kdrikds or Sutras 
and embodied therein in a more 
compact form the teachings of 
his master. 

Shrikantha Bhatta 
( son and pupil ). 

Bhaskara, ( pupil of 
above and son of Diva- 
kara ); lived probably 
in the 11th century 
A. 0. and embodied in 
his Shiva Sutra Vart- 
tika the teachings of 
Vasugu pta received 
along the above line 
of spiritual succession. 


(son and pupil).= 

Abhinava Gupta, pupil of above. 
Great Shaiva author; wrote Com- 
mentaries on Utpalacharyas 
Works, on the Pard-Trimshikd 
(Tantra) and composed the great 
work Tanlrdloka which is an inde- 
pendent treatise&the Tantrasdva, 
besides numerous other works. 
He thus became the one dominant 
influence of his own and subse- 
quent ages in all matters relating 
to Kashmir Shaivaism; lived 
towards the end and the begin- 
ning of the 11th century A. 0. 

Kshemaraja; pupil of above, 
continued the labours of his 
master; wrote the Vimarshini on 
the Shiva Sutras, Commentaries 
on the Svachchhanda and other 
Tantras besides other works. 

Yogaraja, pupil of above and 
also of Abhinava jvith whom ,he 
must have begun his studies; au- 
thor of a Commentary on Abhi- 
nava Gupta's Paramdrthasdra. 

Utpala Vaishnava, 
author of the Pradl- 
pikd, a commentary on 
the Spanda-Kdrikds, 
He must have lived 
about this time as the 
authors he quotes are 
all earlier than this age 
but none later. 


Rama-Kantha (pu- 
pil of Utpalacharya ) 
author of the Span- 

The labours of the above were carried on by 

who lived at the end of the 12*h century A. C; and 

who lived in the 18th century A. C- 



As for the writings of the above the following list 

may be useful : — 

1. Vasu Guptca received inspirationally the 

Shiva Sutras. 
wrote 1. Spanddmrita, probably 
incorporated in the Spa- 
nda Kdrikds. 

2. A ^Commentary on the 
Bhagavad GUd called 
the Vdsavi-Tikd of 
which the first six chap- 
ters are perhaps still to 
be found existing as in- 
corporated in another 
, -j t Tikaonthe Bha. GUd 

called Ldsaki, by Raja- 
naka Lasakaka, of 
which MSS. are avail- 
able. * „ 

2. Kallata 1 wrote 1. Spanda Kdrikds 

2. Spanda Vritti ( or 
Spanda Sarvasva ) 

3. Tativdrtha-Chintdmani 
( lost ) 

4. Madhuvahini ( lost )J 
both the above were 
Commentaries on the 
Shiva Siiti*as. 

3. Somananda wrote 1. Shiva Drishti 

2. A Vritti on the above. 

1. Mukula, who wrote the Alahkdroddhararjia and 
VivdhataUvdnusmarainLa gives Kallata as the name of his father. 
It is however doubtful if he was the son of our Kallata, 

4. Ufcpalacharya 



5. Rama 

wrote 1. Pratyabhijha Kdrikds 
or Sutras. 

2. Vritti on above; only in- 
complete Mss. available. 

3. Tiled on the same called 
Vivriti (lost) 

4. titotrdvall 

5. Ishvara-Siddhi 

6. Ajadapramatri-Sid< 

wrote 1. Spanda- Vivriti. 

2. Commentary on the 
Matanga Tantra. (?) 

3. Commentary on the Bh. 
Gild from the Shaiva 
poiju of view. (?) 

6. Utpala Vaiahnava wrote tipanda Pradlpilcd and 

other works referred to 
, therein but now lost. 


wrote 1. Malini- Vijaya- Vdvt- 
tilca { lost ) 

2. Pard-Trimshikd-Vtva- 

3. Sftiva-Drishtydlochana 
( lost ) 

4. Pratyabhijnor Vimar- 
shini ( Laghvl Vritti ) 

5. Pratyabhijnd-Vivriti- 
Vimarshinl ( Brihati 
Vritti ) 

G. Tantrdloka 

7. Tantrasdra 

8. Paramdrthasdra 
Besides numerous other 

7. Abhinava Gupta 


8, Bhaskara 

9. Kshemaraja 

10, Yogaraja 

11, Jayaratha 

12, Shivopadhyaya 

wrote Shiva-Sutra' Vdrttika 

wrote 1. Shiva- Sutra-Vritti (?) 

2. Shiva-Siitra-Vimar- 

3. PratyabJiijftd-Hridaya 
( both Sutras and com. 
mentary ) 

4. Sp&nda-Sandoha. 

5. Spanda- Nirnaya (in- 
complete ). 

Besides Commentaries 
on several of theTantraa. 

wrote Commentary on the 
% Paramdrthasara of 
Abhinava Gupta. 

wrote Commentary on the 
Tantrdloka. * 

wrote Commentary on the 
Vijndna Bhairava 

The following table showing the known facts as to the 
dates and mutual relation of the principal writers on 
Kashmir Shaivaism may also be appended here: — 
















• rH 

ii ° 

•• 2 -a a- 

3 g | 

•3 iS 


r C3 ^ 
c3 cQ 


O w g 

WJ f^, . r-l 


O ^ o 


2 >» 


-w fl . ^ 

c3 ej P 

ce ^ ^ 





5L o 

*- o 




. o 

e3 , 






cfi o 

.^ o 
S o 

S < 



rh O 


.Jtt ft 

^ ft 




S *: 

e ° a 

.5 tea 


. a iS • 




c8 . 



ft « 
la M 



c8 ft 






M ^ 


S do (8 

I I 



* Ld bd *o 


Part II. 


Having thus glanced at its history and literature, 
let us now consider briefly the main doctrines of the 
Trika or Advaita Shaiva Philosophy of Kashmir* I 
propose to state these clearly but briefly, without enter- 
ing into an exj)osition oj the reasonings 1 which are, or 
can be, adduced in Jbheir support; for such a task would 
obviously be impossible in what is intended to be but a 
short introduction to the study of the subject. We may 
perhaps begin by enunciating the view the Trika holds 
of the true and ultimate nature of an experietfciijg being. 
It may be stated as follows 2 : — 

The Atman. 

The Atman, that is the true and innermost Self in 
every being, is a changeless reality of the nature of a 
purely experiencing principle, 3 as distinguished from what- 
ever may assume the form* of either the expeiicnced or 
of the means of experience. 

1. For the reasonings in support of some of the doctrines 
which the Trika holds in common with the other systems of 
Indian Philosophy, see Hindu Realism by the author. 

2. All that is said in the following paragraphs is based 
on the texts as given in Appendix I. 

3. %cn*rerc*Tf; Shiv. Su. t i. 1. 

4. There is in reality neither any experienced nor means 
of experience which, in its essence, is other than the 




It is called Chaitanya 1 and also Para Samvit, the 
Supreme Experience; Pararaeshvara, the Supreme Lord ; 
Shiva, the Benign One ; or Parama Shiva, 2 the Supreme 
Shiva. These two last names are what I shall chiefly use 
here, and shall therefore refer to this principle in the 
masculine as He, even though in reality it is neither He, 
She nor It, and may be equally referred to by any or all 
of these terms. 

It is impossible to render Chaitanya or Chit in 
English by any single word which would adequately con- 
vey all that is implied by this technical term. We must 
therefore retain it untranslated. 

This Chaitanya or Parama Shiva is the Reality which 
underlies, as its innermost and true self, not only every 
experiencing being but also every thing else in the 
universe, both separately, i. c, individually, as well as a 
totality, i. e., as the entire universe as a whole. 

As the underlying reality in every thing and being in 
the univefte, Parama Shiva is one and the same in them 
all — undivided and unlimited by any of them, however 
much they may be separated either in time or in space. 
In other words, Parama Shiva is beyond the limits of time, 
space and form; and as such i3 Eternal and Infinite, 

Again, as the underlying reality in everything, He is 
all-pervading ; and at the same time He is also all trans- 
cending. That is to say, His nature has primarily a two- 

Experiencer. Ifc is the Experiencer itself that assumes the form 
of the experienced. ^ f^ sHk wrfcrsffajfrK: mt^w *& a*ng*j3«w- 
*rcfrf; * g si«p ^f^qTOWcr- 3?% ?fa srsffTFi^ ii Pra. Vi., I. i. 7. 

1. Or simply Chit. But as this word is also used to 
signify an aspect of Shakti, we may, to avoid confusion, 
reserve it exclusively for that use. See below pp. 43, 44. 

2. The name Parama Shiva would seem to bo a later 
one, but the fact has always been recognised. See Shiva 
Driah,, i. 2, 



fold aspect — an immanent aspect in which Ho pervades 
the universe, and a transcendental aspect in which He is 
beyond all Universal Manifestations. 

Indeed, the Universe with all its infinite variety of 
objects, and means, of experience is nothing but a mani- 
festation of the immanent aspect of Parama Shiva himself. 
It has no other basis or ingredient in it. l 

This aspect of His is called Shakti ( Power ), which, 
being only an aspect, is not in any way different from, or 
independent of, Parama Shiva, but is one and the same 
with Him, 2 If anything, it is His creative Power, and 
is spoken of as His feminine aspect, as will be done 
here also. 

Shakti again has several, indeed an infinite number 
of, aspects or modes, of which five are the most funda- 
mental and primary ones. 3 These are : 

L The Power of Self-Revelation whereby Shiva — as 

3Tfe«$^ 3T*T^to *3^fr; 5T g cprJcT: 3T*q<^ fttf^ 3TF5T W%Wi 5T; Vlfa 3 

Pra. IIHd. } p. 8. 
Ibid., p. 3. 

arfSrc^OTrar- TOT^-ftra-- f^p » Shiv. Druh., i. 2. 

2. mTSfrf^TT fafefor ^n^cft. • .fij^sT^iPrsTT i ; Prat. llrid. } p. 2. 

^fTK-^frCT^¥^ : ffo vjfjg ^ cftj€ffi- ii Shiv. Drish., iii. 2, 3. 

3, sraro whsSfap ' 2 T cm. #ar\, Aim. iv. 
g^nfa* ( wflrO ^f^prg^: i 76zU, Ahn. i t , 

trc^nc* wPp 3Brfifrf*rP5^r- * i Ibid. } Ahn. ii. 
The five aspects even are reduced to but three: $$& g^ifti 

[wftr.] ^fafalxftsft ^w- 5^?Hi^^fa3^ : ftWR* I Tantra- 

sdra, Ahn, i. 


Parama Shiva in reference to this aspect cf Shakti 
is called — shines as it were by himself, even when 
there is nothing objective to reveal or shine upon, 
like the sun in the material world as it would be if it 
could be conceived as shining all by itself, even when 
there was no object which it might light up or of 
which it might reveal the existence. It is the Chit- 
Shakti of the Supreme Lord ( lit. the Power of Intel- 
ligence or the pure Light of Intelligence by itself ). 1 
ii. The Power of realising absolute Bliss and Joy, 
which is ever satisfied in itself without there ever 
being any need for an object or means, and without 
ever going or moving out of itself for its satisfaction, 
and which is therefore ever independent and free 
and is ever at rest, as an ever undisturbed peace. 

This is the Ananda Shukti of Parana Shiva (lit. the 
Power of Joying). 2 
iii. The Power of feeling oneself as supremely able and 
of an absolutely irresistible Will, — the Power also of 
what may be called the feeling of 'divine wonder 
and of forming a divine Resolve as to what to do or 
This is the Ichchha Shakti of Parama Shiva ( lit. the 
Will Power.) 3 

1. ffw^TWcTT f^TnrfTK: i Tan. Stir., Aim. i. 

uproar s^frs^f^h ar^fafcr ' Pra. Vi., III. i. 4. 

2. ^icm^ afFT^rfrfr \ Tan. Stir., Aim. i. 

3?rc^ *n?rwj, ^icHft«nPci^*nwr5rRpngi'«nc^ i Tan. Stir. 
^■srar 3*r. "*t fir srarg^g- *r Jrf&^cr s : " ' 

Pra. Vi. VI, fol. 258. 

3. ffwiwrc reerwfrR: ii Tan. Stir., Ahn. i. 

cwigajws^r i Pra. Vi. Vi., fol. 258. 

Tan. Sar., Ahn. 2. 
And therefore ^eror-, that is, as it were ^ *r#t *r cre4t t 


iv. The Power of bringing and holding all objects in 
conscious relations with oneself and also with one 

This is the Jnana Shakti ( lit. the Power of Knowledge 
or Knowing, of Consciousness pure and simple without 
any reference to emotional Feeling or Will ),* 

v. The Power of assuming any and every form i. e. 

Creating, which, as will be seen, has no other meaning. 
This is the Kriya Shakti of the Supreme Shiva. 2 

With these five principal aspects of his Shakti, of 
which there are in reality, as said above, an infinite 
number of modes, Parama Shiva manifests himself — or 
which is the same thing he manifests his Shakti — as the 
Universe. And he does this of his own free and indepen- 
dent will ( svechchhaya ) without the use of any other 
material save his own Power, and in Himself as the basis 
of the Universe. ( svabhittau ). 3 

Thus, in reality, the Universe is only an "expansion" 
of the Power of Parama Shiva Himself; or-*-t(\ pub it 
perhaps more correctly — of Parama Shiva in his 
aspect as Shakti/ by which aspect he both becomes 
and pervades the Universe thus produced, while yet He 
remains tho ever transcendent Chaitanya without in any 
way whatsoever being affected by the manifestation of 
a Universe, 5 

1. sTr^Wficrr ^n*TOfir? : i Tan. S(ir. } Aim. i. srr*r$ is again 
defined as ^TcW ^fag^rrr, i. e., just the awareness of the object 
as a mere presentation without any feeling or action of 
going out toward it — without reacting, 

2. tferkrcqtfn^ f^mjfa-. \ Ibid.. 

3. Pra. llrid,, Su. 2. 

4. ^ffw^s^r ft^ n Shiv. iSu.; iii. 30. 

srft^siTOT- TOT^rftra- fijsn i Shiv. Drish., i. 2. 

5. A friendly European critic has characterised this 
statement as only an expression of theological prejudice. See 
however note given in Appendix II. 

K 46 

When Shakti expands or opens herself out ( un- 
mishati ), the Universe comes to be, and when She 
gathers or closes herself up ( nimishati )*, the Universe 
disappears as a manifestation, i. e. as 'predicable' in terms 
of discursive thought and speech ( vachya ). 2 

But it is not once only that She thus opens herself 
out, or that She will gather herself up; nor is the present 
Universe the first and only one which has come into 
manifestation. On tte contrary, there have been countless 
Universes before and there will be an equally countless 
number of them in the endless futurity of time —the Uni- 
verses, thus produced, following one another and forming a 
series in which they are linked together by the relation 
of causal necessity; that is to say, each successive Universe 
coming into existence as an inevitable consequence of 
certain causes (to be explained later) •generated in the one 
preceding it 

Thus it happens, that, instead of the Divine Shakti 
opening herself out and gathering herself up only once, 
she has gone on repeating the process eternally, there 
being to it neither an absolute beginning nor a final end- 
ing. In other words, She alternates herself eternally 
between a phase of manifestation or explication and a 
phase of potentiality, bringing a universe into existence 

1. Pra, If rid., p. 2.- } also Spa. Ka. 1. 

2. On the Vachyatva of the universe and its existence in 
a non-Vachya form prior # to manifestation, compare, among 
others, the following passages: — 

TantrdL Viv n Aim. iii. 

crraraT^fiTOTft ft^ \ Ibid. 

snw^R*^ fafas5ts*r qrr^-^rew^r ^sRHrcr: ^nn; \ Ibid. 
3T$r^T^-3r^*T2i sr*r^ i Vijiiti. Bhai* Ud. 
5E?rTf^-R3^c[?R*cT sr^rsr^&^m; i Ibid. 

^fcwpawjj WRRR3 *|w I! Ibid. 


when Bhe assumes the manifesting phase, and reducing it 
to what may be called a seminal state or form, when she 
passes into the potential phase. 

Such a phase of manifestation or actuality of the 
Shakti is called an Udaya, UnmeKha, Abhasana ( lit. an 
appearance, a shining forth) or Srishti, while a potential 
phase is termed a Pralaya ( dissolution ); and a complete 
cycle consisting of a Srishti and a Pralaya ( a creation and 
a dissolution ) is technically named a Kalpa ( lit. an 
'imagining 'assuming' or ' ideating/ namely, of a creation 
and a dissolution ). 1 

Now, even though of an infinite variety, the things 
and beings, of which the Universe, thus produced by the 
'opening out' of Shakti, consists, are built up really of 
only a few fundamental and general factors technically 
called the Tattvas, (lit. the thatness or whatness 2 , namely, 
of everything that exists). What these really are will 
be made clear as we go on. In the meantime they may 
be just enumerated here for the purpose of Waveniont 

Counting from what is, as it were, farthest removed 
from the ultimate Reality, that is to say, in which the 

1. For the use of these terras in the above senses, see, 
among others, Spa. lid., 1; Pra, II rid., Su. 11; &c. Com p. also 
the Vedic passage, q-*n^q^q*i?i: Reg* V. } X. 190. 3. 

Uriel., p. 2. 

For some of the reasons in support of tho doctrine of 
c .Kalpa ? seemy Hindu Realism, pp. 95-100, 125-128. st^tc 
means ^^iHr^sTiq^r' with a view to ^manifestation. See, among 
others, Pra. Ilrid., Su. 11 and Comment, on it ( pp. 21 &c). 

%ft, Pra. Vi } III. i. 2, 

, 48 

nature of the Reality is the most veiled, the Tattvas may 
be enumerated as follows 1 : — 

I. Five Factors constituting what may be termed the 
materiality of the sensible universe viz : 

1. The principle of Solidity or Stability, technically 
called the Prithivl or Dhara-Tattva ; lit. Earth. 

2. The principle of Liquidity — technically Ap; lit. 
Water. « 

3. The principle of what may be called Formativity 
i. e. the Formative or Form building principle — 
technically Agni; lit. Fire. 

4. The principle of Aeriality — technically Vfiyu; 
lit. Air or the aerial atmosphere. 

5. The principle of Vacuity ( Avakasha ) — techni- 

cally Akasha; Lit. the Sky, the bright shining 

The above five form a group and are collectively 
termed the five Bhutas — lit. things that have been, not 
are. We may call them the physical or the sensible group. 

II. Five Principles constituting what become the 
powers of the motor-nervous system when they 
appear in the body, viz : 

C. The Power or Capacity of enjoying passively 
and resting with satisfaction in what is, or is 
felt as, one's own or even oneself, without going 
or moving out ; — the power or capacity of recrea- 
tion; technically the Upastha, lit. the recreative 
or generative organ. 

7. The Power or Capacity of rejecting or discarding 

1. The reasons for the translations, as given here, of 
the technical names of the Tattvas will be made clear as we 
go on. The texts supporting this interpretation of the Tattvas 
are also given below. ( See also Hindu JiealUm ). 

49 ♦ 

what is not needed or liked in an organic system 
—technically the Payu; lit. the voiding or 
discarding organ. 

8. The Power of Locomotion — technically the Pada; 
lit. the feet. 

9. The Power of Handling — technically the Hasta, 
lit. the hand. 

• 10. The Power of Expression # or voicing — techni- 
cally the Vach or the vocal organ. 

These five forming a group, are collectively called 
the Karmendriyas L e. the Indriyas, Powers or Capacities 
of action or activity. 

III. Five General Elements of sense-perception, viz: 

11. The sens* object of 04our-as-such, the Gandha- 


12. do do of Flavour-as-such, the Rasa-tanmatra. 

13. do do of Colour-as such, the Rupa-t%nmatra. 

14. do do of Feel-as-such, the Sparsha-tanmatra. 

15. do do of Sound-as such, the Shabda-tanmatra. 

These five forming the quintad of the general objects 
of the special senses are collectively called the Tanmiltras, 

IV. Five Powers of sense perception, viz. 

16. The Power, Capacity or Sense of Smell (Ghran- 
endriya ). 

17. do do of Taste ( Rasanendriya ). 

18. do do of Sight ( Darshanendriya ). 

19. do do of Feeling-by-Touch ( Sparshendriya ) 

20. do do of Hearing ( Shravanendriya ) 

The above five are collectively called the five Jfianen- 
driyas or Buddhlndriyas i. e. Indriyas or Powers of sense- 
perception, or, as they may be called, with reference to 
their operation in the physical body, the senses. 



V # Three Capacities of mental operation, via: 

21. The Capacity of concretion and imagination — 
the Manas, the ever moving or the ever flow- 
ing one. 

22. The Capacity of 'self-arrogation' and appropria- 
tion—the Aharikfira, that which builds up the 
personal Ego, the ' 1 ' of e very-day life of one 
as Rama pr Shyama, as John or Jones. 

23. The Capacity of Judgment — the Buddhi. 

The above three are collectively called the Antah- 
karana, lit. the ' Inner Organ.* 

VI. Two principles of the limited individual subject- 
object, viz: 

24. The Root of all Feeling, that is, Affection in the 
widest sense of the term ; 6v the Principle of the 
Affective in general, affecting the experiencer 
either as ( i ) the movementless, i. e. actionless, 
And even blissful, Feeling of the merest presenta- 
tion or of pure consciousness or awareness as 
distinguished from any the slightest moving 
passion ; as ( ii ) moving Passion in any form or 
degree; or as ( iii ) Stupefaction or Dulness in 
any form or degree; — technically the Prakrit i, 
Affecting, or the Affective (lit. the doing forth, 
She that worketh forth. ) 

25. That which experiences these in or as a limited 
individual being— technically the Purusha, the 

So far the Tattvas or principles are, as will be seen, 
the same as those recognised by the Sankhya System of 
Philosophy, with the only difference that, while the 
Purusha and the Prakriti are the final realities from the 
Sahkhya point of view, they are but derivatives according 
to the Trika, which, therefore, carrying the analysis 
further, recognises the following additional Tattvas:— 

51 . 

VII. Six Principles of subjective Limitation, viz: 

26. ( a ) Limitation in regard to Duration of pre- 
sence and simultaneity of experience — leading to 
the necessity of having experiences for limited 
periods and in succession. — Technically Kala or 
Time. ( The determinant of ' when ' ). 

27. ( b ) Limitation in regard to presence, as in 
space, i. e., access, following directly from or, 
more correctly perhaps, resulting simultaneously 
with, the limitation of presence in regard to 
Duration, and leading to the necessity of being 
confined to a restricted area and therefore of 
being subject to cause and condition so as to be 
compelled to operate, or have experiences, under 
restricting conditions of cause, sequence, occasion 
and so on— such conditions never existing where 
there is no limitation of presence as regards 
either duration or extension. Technically it is 
called Niyati ; Jit. Restriction, or Regulation. 
( The determinant of c where ' ). 

28. ( c ) Limitation in regard to Interest, leading to 
the necessity of attending to one or a few things 
at a time and thus of being attached to some, and 
letting go the others L e. to the necessity of selec- 
tion; technically Raga; lit. Attachment or Interest. 

29. ( d ) Limitation as regards simple Awareness, 
without reference to interest, feeling and so on, so 
as to be aware of only a few things i. e. to have 
only a limited sphere of cognition; technically 
Vidya i. e. Knowledge (but limited knowledge). 1 

30. ( e ) Limitation as regards Authorship or power 
to accomplish, leading to the necessity of limited 
activity, so as not to be able to do, i. e. create, 

1. Comp, ftf w. (Shiva Sutra t i. 2) where ^tft, know- 
ledge, means limited knowledge only. 

, 62 

modify or destroy anything or everything at 
will; technically Kala, lit. Art i. & the power 
of limited creation. 

The above are collectively called the five Kafichukas 
i. c. sheaths or cloaks of the Purusha. 1 

31. The generally limiting, self-forgetting and dif- 
ferentiating Power — technically Maya. 

This alsb is sometimes included in the Krii- 
chukas which then are counted as six, 

VIII. Five Principles of the Universal subject- 
object, viz : 

32. The Principle of Correlation in the universal 
experience, i. e. in feeling and consciousness, be- 
tween the expeyiencer and the experienced — 
technically the Sad-Vidya or Shuddha-Vidya i. e. 
True or pure Knowledge. 

33. T£he Principle of Identification in the universal 
experience between what are thus correlated— 

technically the Aishvara or the Ishvara Tattva; 
lit. the 'Lordliness' or Might. 

34. The Principle of Being — technically the Sada- 
khya, ( or the Sada Shiva Tattva ); lit. that 
from which or in which the experience of 
Being begins, 2 

35. The Principle ^of Negation and Potentialisation, 
namely, of the Universal experience, i. e. the 

1. The order in which the five Kafichukas are enumerat- 
ed here is that of the hh. Pra. Vritti by Utpalacharya himself. 
In other works they are enumerated in the following order: — 
Kala, Vidya, Eaga, Kala and Niyati. 

2. Not unlike *w*n of the Vedanta in its aspect only 
as Sat* 


experience of and as the Universe ; — technically 
the Shakti Tattva, i, e. the Power-Principle. 1 

36. The Principle of the pure Experiencer by itself, 
with all experience of objects and means of 
experiencing them entirely negatived and sup- 
pressed, i. e. the principle of pure ' I \ without 
the experience of even an c am' as formulated in 
the experience ' I am'; — technically the Shiva 
Tattva; lit. the Benign Principle- 2 

What these Tattvas really are will, as said above, 
soon be made clear. For the present it is enough for our 
purpose to know that the manifested Universe consists, 
from the Trika point of view, of the above general factors 
or Tattvas ; and that the Universe constituted of these 
factors is only a manifestation of the Power or Shakti 
of Parama Shiva, or, more correctly perhaps, of Parama 
Shiva himself in his aspect as Shakti, 

The Process of Manifestation- • 

Now, the manifestation of such a Universe, when 
regarded from the Trika point of view, is and can be but 
an expression of the ideas, or, more correctly, the experi- 
ence, of Parama Shiva, the highest Reality, who is no- 
thing but Chaitanya, pure and simple; and, as such, the 
process of Universal manifestation is, from this point of 
view, what may be called a process of experiencing out, 

And if so, this process of Universal manifestation is, 
as is also obvious, the same as, or similar to, the psychical 
process in our daily lives of thinking and experiencing 
out , that is to say, of what may be called psychical Repro- 
duction, ( or mental Reproduction, using the word mental 

h Comp. the Ved&ntic $w*; as w^ only, 

2. It may be said to correspond to Brahman as only Chit. 



in the widest sense ). 1 Technically the process is called 
one of * Shining out* — Abhasana or Abhasa, 2 — and is in 
reality only a form of what in the Vedanta is called the 
1 Vivarta ' i. e. the whirling or unrolling out, in other 
words, appearing in diverse forms. The only difference 
there is between the two may be stated as follows : — 

The appearances are, according to the exponents of 
the ' Vivarta, ' mere c names and forms ' ( Nama-Rupa- 
matra ), and can un&er no circumstances be regarded ns 
Real in the true sense of the word, namely, with an essence 
in them, i. e., as part of them, which is absolutely un- 
changing and never non-existent They are not essentially 
real because they are for ever non-existent in the 
Supreme Reality i. e. in Brahman, as the Reality in the 
Vedanta is termed — are never experienced in true Free- 
dom, i e. in Moksha, wheieein absolute • oneness with the 
Reality is realised. And being thus non-existent in the 
Real, they are not of the nature of Reality in their essen^ 
tial character. Nor are they absolutely unreal, because 
they forxa a e beginningless series as facts of experience in 

1. That is to say Unmesha, which is described as follows: 

s^*r. s g faffa". *5R agq^aj^ ti Spa. Ka.> 41. 
" That [ process ] is to be known as Unmesha ( lit. the 
Opening out, like that of a bud into a full blossomed flower ) 
whereby there arises [ in the mind ], engaged ( or absorbed ) 
in some one thought, some other thought [ spontaneously by 
itself]. One should realise it oneself (i.e. by personal 
experience )," 

Comp. also the Spanda Sandoha on it. 

2. cT^r aTrercwrr m sre%cR<r^T*rp i Pra. Vim., III. I.i. Comp. 
wwkpi in Pra. llrid., Su. 11. (p. 24.) with coram, on it. The 
doctrine of regarding Abhasa as the process of Manifestation 
is called Abhasa-Vada, or Abhasa-Paramartha-Vada and also 
Svatantrya-Vada: for instance in Spanda Sandoha, See also 
extract made in note It pp. 55, 56. 


all stages and forms of existence short of Moksha, or that 
absolute Freedom and Independence which is constituted 
by the realisation, in experience ( i e. not merely as an 
intellectual conviction, a logical conclusion or a matter of 
faith ), of one's absolute oneness with and as Brahman. 
The Nama-Rupas are — or rather Maya, of which they are 
but forms, is — what cannot have applied to it the predica- 
tions of absolutely real or absolutely unreai, of Being 
or*not-Being ( Sadasadbhyfun anirvachya ). 

The teachers of the Abhasa process, on the other 
hand, maintain that the appearances are real in the sense 
that they are aspects of the ultimately Real, i.e.,oi Parama 
Shiva. They are indeed non-existent in the Real in and 
as the forms in which we limited beings experience them. 
But they are not absolutely nonexistent. They exist in 
the Real in a supremely synthesised form — as the experi- 
ence which the Reality as such, i. e. as Parama Shiva, has. 
The appearances thus are essentially real as well. What 
in their essence and in the most highly synthosisgd form 
constitutes the experience of the Real cannot itself be 
unreal. For that would mean that the experience of the 
Real itself as the Real is unreal, which is absurd. The 
appearances therefore are not the forms of some indescrib- 
able, sadasadbhynm anirvachya, Maya, but real, Sat, in 
essence. 1 

With only this difference between them, the two 
processes of Abhasa and Vivartamay be said to bo practi- 
cally the same. They are really one and the same pro- 
cess in so far as it is a process only — without reference to 
the ultimate nature of what that process brings about, i.e. 
of the ' appearances ' constituting the Universe. 

And as a process it may be described, if not defined, 
as that whereby products are brought into manifestation 

1. $i Pw *w^ri 3i trwi qrc^pfr Srcrofaf^ srfWfr Star- 

, 56 

from a source which, while giving birfch to these, remains 
as unaffected and undivided as it ever was. 1 Further, it 
is a process of apparent division, so that, when divided, 
the source, instead of undergoing any diminution, appears 
to gain in strength, substance and even volume, if such 
an expression can be used with regard to what is really 
beyond measure. 

An illustration^in this latter aspect of the operation 
of the process, that is to say, the apparent strengthening 
of the source even when it seems to be divided may be 
found in that emotional expansion which has been so 

c*T%*T ^°T STT^f — 

sforeiwrcnTt WTTRwrariW; ' 

s*Rte^ wift*ra$fa to^wp* » Pra. ITHd. % p. C. 
^<TT*c!TmreT^ rif%Ttei^ wi?fF«r^i 3*$rera«r m^l^^ ^te irat^a ?<g*iqsufa 

^q*i^*pirefras«nFTf^n m\m sm wrawn^: jjfaftfocr- t Pra. vi vi. 

sn*rcnrc*n*hinF «?mnr^i^t *n 1 Sp. Sand., Fol. 3. 
rT^r awrossn ^ ofe3cM<45i«fr 1 Pra. w., III. ii. 1, 
?X ^ wnfit ci^ ci^ spqcT i Pra. //rid, p. 25. 

1. Comp. £fo't?a Drishti where this characteristic is 
clearly shown, when it is stated how, on the manifestation of 
the successive Tattvas, the preceding ones are in no way 
affected. Coinp. also the following striking couplet embody- 
ing the Vedantic view of the question : 

yfa ^T^r •#mftr<^ u ( Shantip&#ia. ) 


beautifully expressed by the immortal Kalidasa in the 
following lines: — 

" That love of theirs ( of King Dillpa and his queen 
Sudakshina ) which, like the ideally* loving union of a 
couple of chakora birds, had ( hitherto ) been resting 
only in themselves ( the love of the one entwining round 
the other only, without a rivalry ), although (now) shared 
with a son, — that love of theirs, inspite of this division 
as to its object, only increased for each other." * 

Such a statement may sound a paradox and a contra- 
diction in itself; bui we all know that real love and other 
emotions not only show no signs of diminution when dis- 
tributed and divided over an increasing number of objects 
but they only grow in volume and expansion, while the 
source from which they spring remains inexhaustible. 

A Hindu philosophic thinker can also recognise, 
in the process of the growth and expansion of a vital 
cell, an instance of the operation of the Vivarta or the 
Abhasa. Here is a cell which is a sensible object with a 
something called life in it. As it grows and expands, it 
divides and multiplies itself. But how ? Has there been 
a real division in the life also which was manifest in the 
first cell ? If so, how is there ncT diminution in the life 
which is perceived in each of the new cells ? How is 
it that there is as much of life in each of the new cells 
as there was in the original one, if there has been a real 
division in the life itself ? From the Hindu point of 
view the division is only apparent; and, although numer- 
ous other centres of life may be produced from a single 

1. Baghuvameha, iii, 24. 


centre, the life itself is not really divided but remains 
ever the same in every one of the newly produced 

These two cases may be regarded as examples of the 
Abhasa process in its aspect as production, or reproduc- 
tion and expansion, without any real division. 

But, as said above, Abhasa has another aspect also. 
In this aspect it is*a process whereby, while the products 
come into manifestation, their source remains entirely 
unaffected and exists exactly as it ever was as the inex- 
haustible fountain-head of an infinite series of such pro- 
ducta The process of vital cell-division would be an 
illustration of this aspect also of the Abhasa, if we could 
observe the real source of not only the life we perceive ' 
in a cell but of all life. fAs however, •this is not possible 
for all of us at this stage of human growth and evolution 
— it is the true masters of Yoga who alone can be said 
to possess this power of observation — we may have to 
seek elsewhere for a really satisfactory example of the 
Abhasa in all its aspects. But without being able to 
observe the source of all life, we may safely assert that 
even the immediate source of the life in the progeny — the 
vitality of the parent — is little affected when the off- 
spring is given birth to, and that the reproduction of life 
by a parent is an instance, however imperfect, of the 
Abhasa procesa 

We should find *a good example of Abhasa in 
some of the recent findings of abnormal psychology, as it 
is now being studied in the West, if these findings were 
universally recognised as facts. The instance of what 
has been called the ' dissociation of a personality/ taken 
along with what has been named the subliminal self of 
a man, would furnish an excellent example of what is 
meant by Abhasa. For, in such a case, we could see 
how a number of ' personalities '—distinct individuals to 


all intents and purposes— is produced from apparently the 
one and only subliminal self which itself is not evidently 
affected in any way even when a number of offshoots, 
so clearly differentiated and separated off from one 
another, is produced from it- 1 

But what would seem to furnish a remarkably satis- 
factory example of the Abhasa, indeed would prove to 
certain minds its existence and operation in nature, may 
probably be found in the latest theory of Western Science 
as to the ultimate constitution of matter, when that 
theory is fully established and accepted on all hands. 
From what one understands of this theory, one would not 
be far wrong in saying that it is tending in a direction 
which would seem to point to the conclusion that percep- 
tible matter will at last have to be regarded as somehow 
a product of a something whi(Jh fills and pervades all 
space that we know, — that matter in its ultimate form is 
nothing more than may be mere ' places or centres of 
strain ' in the all-filling Something. 

But how, even as ' centres of strain' only, can Matter 
be produced from this Something ? The ' Something ' 
must be regarded as a Continuum and even a Plenum. 2 
It cannot be divided up and parcelled out, and a bit of 
it located here and another bit placed there, as matter 
can ba Nor can it, as a plenum and a continuum, 
really be changed — even if it be ' strained ' — into some 
thing else, specially a something which is divisible and 
capable of allocation in disjointed sections of space, as 
Matter, its product, is. The production of Matter from 
the Something then must be by a process which, while 
bringing the product into existence, leaves the source of 
the product unchanged, — in short it is the Vivarta or the 
Abhasa process. Here then we have a remarkable 

1. See Multiple Personality by Drs. Sidis and Goodhart, 

2. For reasons see Hindu Realism pp. 47-49,, 


illustration of what the Hindu Philosophers mean when 
they speak of the Vivarta or Abhasa 

However this may be, what we have to note here is 
(a) that the process of the universal manifestation, — 
technically called Abhasa, — as regarded by the Trika, is 
one which, while bringing the product into existence does 
not in any way affect the source from which it is 
produced, the source remaining as unchanged as it ever 
was; and (b) that it is a process of only apparent division. 

And this is so because the universal manifestation 
consists merely in an experiencing out, inasmuch as the 
ultimate source of the Universe is a Reality which is a 
purely Experiencing Principle, and as, there being no other 
ingredient whatsoever which does or can ever enter into 
the composition of the Universe, the process of production 
or reproduction on the part of an Experiencing Principle 
by itself is incapable of having any other meaning than 
the multiplication of thoughts, ideas, feelings and the 
like, i.g.> having various experiences. The process there- 
fore is essentially one which, as said before, may bo 
likened to what may be called a psychical, rather a logical, 
process in our daily lives; and as such its operation is 
marked by steps or stages, which follow one another 
as logical necessities — each successive step following 
inevitably from the one preceding it, as the deduction 
of a certain conclusion of a particularised kind follows 
inevitably, in a rationally thinking mind, from certain 
premises of a general type. That is to say the operation 
of the process is guided by a law of logical necessity. 1 

And the way in which this law of a logical necessity 
operates, and the actual results to which it leads as the 
manifestation of the Universe proceeds, and how finally 

1. See ante verse quoted in note 1, p. 54. Comp. also the 
Hegelian doctrine of the Universe being the immanent logical 
dialectic of the Absolute. 

61 . 

each successive result, when thus produced, in no way 
affects the preceding one or ones from which it follows, 
may be shown as follows ; — 1 

The Transcendent Parama Shiva. 

First, — i. e., logically but not in time — 2 there is Parama 
Shiva who is of the nature of Bliss itself and all complete 
in himself. He holds in himself the still unmanifested 
Ufti verse as an idea, rather, as an experience of his 
own which is also the root of all that afterwards becomes 
expressible in terms of discursive thought and speech 3 . 
At the same time He transcends even this supremely 
ideal Universe or, which is the same thing, this Universal 

So long as He,is this, that Js, so long as He is both 
the transcending Reality, Bliss and Intelligence as well 
as the one all-including Supreme Experience of the per- 
fect, because the supremely ideal, Universe, there is no 
need of a Universal manifestation. For thers i$, as ib 
were, no feeling of a want, Parama Shiva being all- 
complete in Himself. 

1. For some of the texts on which the whole of this 
section is based see Appendix III. 

2. There is as yet no experience of 'Time' as we under- 
stand it. * Time,' as a succession of moments, is experienced only 
with the manifestation of the 26th Tattva i. e. with Kala; see 
ante])* 51 and below p. 78. This is a point which should be 
borne very carefully in mind if one is to avoid confusion. Of 
course in speaking even of a purely logical process one has to 
use such phrases as ' before ', 'after', • now ' and so on. But 
it should be understood that this is so only because we cannot 
speak otherwise, and that the experience of Time which such 
phrases imply does not begin till we come to the 26th Tattva 
in this list. 

& Parama Shiva holds the universe as an arwfr iiwnppk I 

c 62 

A.— The Universal Experience. 

I. Five Principles of the Universal 


/. The Shiva Tatty a. 

But, in order that there may be a Universe, He 
brings into operation that aspect of his Shakti which 
manifests itself as the principle of Negation 1 and lets 
the ideal Universe disappear from His view and allows 
Himself, as it were, to feel the want of a Universe, but 
for which feeling there could be, as said above, no need 
of a manifested Universe on the part of one who is all- 
complete in Himself. 

In this state He is what He was as Parama Shiva 
in all essentials and in every respect, with only the eli- 
mination of the experience of the ideal Universe which 
Parama Shiva, in His aspect as pervading the Universe, — 
as distinguished from the transcending aspect, — feels as 
one and identical with himself. 

The experience of this state is called the Shiva 
Tattva which comes into manifestation without in any 
way whatsoever affecting Parama Shiva who remains as 
He ever was — exactly and in every respect the same as 
before — existing simultaneously with and including the 
Shiva Tattva. 

With the experience of the supremely ideal Universe 
negatived, the Shiva Tattva is only the pure light of 
Intelligence (Chinmatra, Chib only) without anything 

1. f^vTBqrtn^qr » Comm. on Par. Sav. } Ka. 4. 

cTcrt f^-*simffmFJT^^^ *w* ii Pra. 

Hrid.y pp. 8, 9. 

ctt^ wr^T^$ Shaivl Tika. 

Comp. Schilling and Fichte, among others, on this 


whatsoever to shine upon— without oven a trace of the 
notion or feeling of a Universe in the experience 1 . It is 
thus only the pure 1 1 ' without even the thought or feel- 
ing 1 am,' for 'am' or being implies a relation, namely, of 
identity, howsoever subdued or indistinct, meaning I am 
this, viz., this body or this mind and so on ; or I am here 
and now, which however really means I am what is here 
and now, i e., I am this something which is here and now. 
But as there is in this state no notion*or feeling of a 'this* 
or 'that' (of an 'idam\ meaning, as it would in this state, 
the ideal Universe), there can be no thought of even an 
1 am ' or being in the experience of the Shiva Tattva. It 
is therefore the experience which acts as the Principle of 
the pure ' I ' 2 * 

Thus Shiva Tattva is the first stage 3 in the process 
of the Universal Manifestation f and it is a state in which 
the Chit aspect of Shakti is most manifest, all the other 
aspects being no doubt there, but held as it were in 
suppression or suspense 4 . t 

2. The Shakti Tattva. 

And because these other aspects of the Divine 
Shakti are held in suppression — and because, indeed, the 
whole experience of the supremely ideal Universe of the 
Parama Shiva state is negatived and held as suppressed — 
there must be some aspect of this Divine Shakti herself 
in operation to make such a tremendous act of Negation 
possible. This the Universe-negativing aspect of the 

1. jprrfi 5 ^ JflRRirarccWT *$tfcr i Ante p. 62, note. 1. 

2. wpfcg^: s^q^r.j Pra. Vim.\ III. i. 3. 

3. See, however, below p. 65, note 1. 

4. This is following Abhinava Gupta. According to 
Utpala, however, ^w^RfTOTs fijsps Comm, on Shiva Dfishti % ii. 1, 
But then Utpala counts only three aspects of the Shakti as 
primary in which the other two, Chit and Ananda are merged. 

' 64 

Divine Shakti is called the Shakti Tattva, which is to be 
distinguished from Shakti as such, and is thus the second 
element or factor which enters into the composition of the 
manifested Universe. It can scarcely be called a second 
stage as it comes into manifestation simultaneously 
with the Shiva Tattva. Indeed, it may be safely said 
that it is by the operation of the Shakti Tattva that the 
manifestation of the Shiva Tattva becomes at all possible. 
And it is on account of this fact perhaps, that the sepa- 
rate mention of the Shakti Tattva is sometimes omitted 
from the list of Tattvas, it being counted as one with and 
included in the Shiva Tattva \ 

But if counted separately, it is really the manifesta- 
tion of the Ananda aspect of the Divine Shakti ; for the 
nature of Ananda, as perfect Bliss and Supremest Self- 
satisfaction, is absolute* 1 Rest in what is one's own, and 
cessation of all flutter and movement. 2 For no perfect 
Bliss is ever there unless there is complete absence of 
restlessness — unless there is a cessation of all goings and 
movings out. As there is, in the stage we are considering, 
absolutely no such moving out yet, but only the feeling 
of absolute rest and peace in one's own real self, this feel- 
ing can be only the realisation of the Ananda aspect of 
the Divine Shakti 3 , 

Thus as they come into manifestation, the Shiva and 
the Shakti Tattvas remain united to each other — the one 
as the pure light of the Experiencing Principle, as only 
the Chit, realising itself as only the pure ' I \ without the 
experience of even an 'am', much less of a Universe 
which that light can shine upon and reveal; and the 

1. See, among others, Pra. Hrid^ p. 8, 

U. 3?R^[ or Love is really ^^qfosfifarj ante p. 44, note 2. 

3. %& vx*(ftj§'-i 5^i^ •heart' really means love, joy and 
bliss. The Shakti Tattva is really the Universe as a potential- 
ity, lb is the *rtft or «ftaraw as referred to in Pra. Hrid. % 
Su. 11., p. 24. 

65 ♦ 

other as the realisation of the feeling of only the pro- 
foundest Bliss and Peace passing all understanding — as 
that Ananda which is to be the core of all things to come. 

Although produced, in a sense, from Parama Shiva, 
inasmuch as they form an experience which is other than 
and distinct from the Supremest Experience, the Para 
San'ivit, of and as Parama Shiva the Shiva-Shakti 
Tattvas are really eternally existent 4. For they do not 
disappear in Pralaya but remain in the bosom of Parama 
Shiva as the seed of the Universe to come. If this 
analogy of the seed may be carried a little further, then 
the Shiva Tattva is what may be called the Life ( Prana ) 
in the Universal seed, while the Shakti Tattva abides as 
the potentiality of the infinite variety of Forms in which 

that Life becomes manifest in a Universe. 

• • 

Further, the Shiva Tattva, as life ( or Prana ) in this 
sense, is the very 'first flutter,' of Parama Shiva, — the firsb 
( vibratory movement ' towards a Universal manifestation ; 
and the Shakti Tattva is what checks, controls and regu- 
lates that movement of Life and acts as the Principle of 
Restraint. 2 

3. The Sadakhya Tattva. 

From the Shiva-Shakti State there gradually 
develops the experience which may be formulated in 
thought as ' I am/ 

1. See, for instance, Pra. Hrid,, p. 8, where the Shiva- 
Tattva ( in which the Shakti-Tattva also is included there) is 
shown as quite outside the range of the Tattvas which come 
into manifestation only at Srishti. See also Shiva JDrishfi, 
Ish Pra* Ka. ( III. i. 1 ) &c. where the manifestation of the 
Sada Shiva Tattva is counted as the first. 

<7w3[ st w*%- xwfp f^rlT^g^cr rT^|f. H Tattva- Sand. 1. 
pt«r: *q?^ is here nothing more than the first flutter of life. 


This experience of an ' I am ' means and must mean, 
as said above, < I am this ' — the 6 this ' in the state we are 
considering being of course an indistinct, because not as 
yet clearly formulated, reference in thought and feeling 
to the Ideal Universe which was suppressed in the Shiva- 
Shakti stage, but is just beginning to come up to the 
surface of the experience again, like an object which, 
being of a naturally buoyant character but having re- 
mained submerged under pressure, may begin to float* up 
to the surface of the ocean as the pressure is lifted* The 
Ideal Universe at this stage is felt, as it were, as a vague 
something just stirring in the depth of one's conscious* 
ness 1 — as a movement, as it were, of an unformulated 
thought, or an undefined feeling, of a something in ones 
innermost being as yet eluding a clear grasp in experi- 
ence. And as it begins to stir there, the experiencer also 
begins as it were to recollect his true character and state, 
in somewhat the same way as a man may begin to re- 
collect, as he just begins to recover from a state, .let us 
say of 'supreme joy ( as, for instance, when one may be 'in 
the embrace of the beloved ') 2 which has made him forget 
everything about himself — his own status, position, 
possessions and glory — and may just vaguely begin to 
formulate these in thought as " I am so and so," the ' so 

!• fa^te'ep s^iftre:; Ish. Prat., III. i. 3. 

2. Sbakti is the Hyidaya, the 'heart', i. e. the 'Beloved', 
of the Supreme Experiencer, g^t ^ftrg:; Para. Prav. Com p. 

c< He ( the Atman) was as much as a man and wife in 
each other's embrace are". Brih. Up. 9 I. iv. 3. 

?ra*n fo*roi fiwi *Fqft*nRt * w few M Trerc^, wfo w 

" Now as a man, when embraced by his beloved wife, knows 
nothing that is without, nothing that is within, thus does the 
Purusba, when embraced by the Prajfia Atman, know nothing 
that is without, nothing that is within," Ibid. t IV, iii. 21, 

67 . 

and bo ' being as yet of an undefined character but refer- 
ring all the same to his bodily form, name and their rela- 
tions to things, in other words, to what constitutes the 
'this' in the thought or feeling of the 'I am' on his part. 

This stage follows the former one as a necessity by 
virtue of what may be called a law similar to the one, 
which, in the psychical process of the human mind, brings 
about a stage of ' movement ' after a state of profound 
but calm and motionless enjoyment of perfect bliss, rest 
and peace. It is due, one might say, to the stirring anew 
of the Life of the Universe which was held in suppression 
in the previous stage. 

It is, however, just the beginning of activity — of just 
the first stirring of life — and therefore the thought or 
feeling of the Ideal Universe at this stage is, as said 
above, only a dim one, like a faint and indistinct picture 
of a long- forgotten scene which is beginning to re-form 
itself in one's memory and is still quite in the back- 
ground of consciousness. This being the situation at this 
stage, the realisation of the ' I ', — in the experience ' I am 
this/ — is a more dominant factor, than the c this * re- 
ferring to the Ideal Universe which is just beginning to 
reappear in consciousness and is, as a consequence, still 
very vague and indistinct. 

It is also the state in which there is for the first time 
the notion of c being ' in the experience ' I am this/ and 
is therefore called the Sadakhya 1 — that in which there 
is for the first time the experience which may be spoken 
of as Being. It is also called the Sada Shiva Tattva, which 
as only another name of the Sadakhya should be distin- 
guished from Sada Shiva the meaning of which term 
by itself will be explained later. 

It is the state in which the Ichchha aspect of the 
Divine Shakti is the dominant feature, the others being 

1. s^ipri h4, m- jpjfrr sft[fa w&n. J Prat. Vim., III. i. 2. 


held in suppression 1 . And it is only natural that this should 
be so. For, as already said, Ichchhais the aspect which, in 
one of its forms, produces, or rather is, that feeling which 
may be described as one of divine ' wonder ' as to what to 
do — of resolve as to what is to be done ; and as such 
precedes actual movement and activity. And as there is 
as yet no actual activity but only a sense of wonder of 
this sort as to what to do and a resolve to move and act — 
only a will to act, 'following a state of perfect Rest and 
Bliss — it is naturally a state in which the Ichchhfi aspect 
of the Divine Shakti is most manifest. 2 

As the manifestation of the Ichchha aspect of the 
Divine Shakti, the Sadakbya, or the Sada Shiva Tattva, 
may perhaps be also spoken of as the state of Self-realisa- 
tion as * Being ' or ' Force ' which is able to start action. 
This Self-realisation as Bteing and Force — or, as it may 
be said of it at a lower stage, of realising one-self as a 
somebody with a will that is able to perform an act — is 
a necessary step before that act itself can be undertaken. 

That this is the case may be seen from an analysis 
of our daily experiences under circumstances which are at 
least to some extent similar to those we are now consider- 
ing. It is true that in our daily life the process of such 
a realisation as being or as a somebody able to do a 
thing — or, as may be said of it, such a mental stock- 
taking of one-self as a being with a will,— is a very 
rapid one, almost too rapid to be clearly realised. But it is 
all the same there. And the Sadakhya step in the life pro- 
cess of the Universe may be said to correspond to this step 
in the daily life of a man. It is a necessary step, without 
which no act of the kind that is going to follow is possible. 

1. According to Utpala, however, a^rfira is ^rrasrfarcT^ 
while ;^OTff% is man ifest in the Shiva Tattva. Utpala on 
Shiva Drishti, ii. 1. 

2. It is a 'static' condition preceding the 'kinetic state } 
of actual movement. 


Further, although counted as the third Tattva, the 
Sadakhya is, as a matter of fact, the first manifestation in 
the Universal process. For, as pointed out above, the 
Shiva-Shakti Tattvas are really eternally existent. 

And the Sadakhya comes into manifestation, as will be 
readily seen, from what has been said of it, as the principle 
of pure Being. 

4. The Aishvara Tattva. 

In the next stage, this \mental stock-taking/ 
on the part of the Divine Experiencer as a Being with a 
will to act, is followed by the emerging out, as the most 
prominent element in the Experience, of the * this/ that 
is, of the Ideal Universe which had been lurking as an 
indistinct picture in the back-ground of the Being, In 
this stage, therefore, the experience assumes a form which 
may be formulated in thought as: 'This am 1\ — a form in 
which the ' this ' becomes the more dominant element, 
while the other factor, the ' 1/ is thrown into th^ back- 
ground. Self-realisation as being is followed by the 
realisation — by a full survey — of what constitutes the 
state of that Self as Being. 

We may observe in our own individual lives a state 
corresponding to this one in the process of the Universal 
manifestation. It may be noticed that, as one begins to 
think of oneself, after an enjoyment of the all- forgetting 
bliss of the 'beloved's embrace' of our previous illustration, 
the vague experience of the 'so and so' in the thought 
' I am so and so/ which first emerges into consciousness, 
is followed by a clear notion of who or what he really is. 
He begins to realise clearly all about himself— his state, 
in short. 

And it is obvious that in this experience what is more 
dominant is not the notion of the ' I ' as a being or a 
mere somebody, which is there only as a back-ground, 


but the notion of what constitutes the 'so and so* or the 
' this/ i. e. 9 his state. His experience in this state is 
occupied chiefly with a survey of what may be called his 
1 so-and-so-ness ' which emerges into full view and eclipses 
and Identified with what may be termed his I-ness. 

Thus, the state which follows the Sada-Shiva Tattva 
in the life-process of the Universe is brought about in 
obedience to what aiay be called a law similar to the one 
which obtains in our own individual lives under similar 
or somewhat similar circumstances. 

This stage of making a full survey of, Identifica- 
tion with, what constitutes the state of the Experience^ 
— of the 'this' aspect of his being, — namely, of the 
Ideal Universe as it must be at this stage, is called the 
Aishvara or the Ishvara Tattva, i e., the Tattva of 
realising what constitutes the Lordliness and the Glory 
of the Divine Being. The 'Ishvara Tattva 3 is to be dis- 
tinguished from Ishvara, the Lord, to be explained later 
— like*the Sada-Shiva Tattva from Sada-Shiva mention- 
ed above. 

And as it is the state in which a full survey of the 
1 This ' L e., the Ideal Universe is taken, — in which the 
1 This f emerges into full and clear view, as a clear and 
well defined picture and not as a vague and indistinct 
image in the back-ground of one's consciousness as it is 
in the Sadakhya state,— the aspect of the Divine Shakti 
which is most manifest in this state, is the Jfiana or 
Power of being conscious 1 . 

In these two states, the Sadakhya and the Aishvara, — 
or the Sada-Shiva Tattva and the Ishvara Tattva— the 

1. But according to Utpala s f^Thf^w fotfterct i It is 
<&3flftR that inUtpala's view is frcqfa*n^ } Shiva Drishti Vritti, 
ii. 1. *rcr is arwtacir; btt*t§ is again defined, as said above 
(p. 45 note 1 ), as ifc^*n %sfcg*sm I 


experience may, as said above, be respectively formulated 
in thought as 

'I am This' 
and ' This am 1/ 

with only this difference that, while in the first case the 
i I '-side or aspect of the relation of being is more domi- 
nant, the ' This '-side remaining merely as a vague back- 
ground, in the second state, that o£ the Aishvara, the 
1 TRis '-side of the relation is the more prominent aspect, 
the ' I '-side being thrown quite into the back-ground, 
indeed, being quite Identified with and merged into the 
< This/ * 

5. The Sad-Vidya. 

In the next state which follows, there arises an 
equalisation in prominence of •the two aspects of the 
Experience which then takes the form, ' I am This ' in 
which both the ' I ' and the ' This ' are realised with 
equal clearness, so much so that, while they are felt as 
entirely identified with each other, they can yet be # clearly 
separated in thought — so that the ' I ' can be realised as 
the subject and the ' This ' as the object of the experience, 
and that, for this reason, the experiencing subject can 
realise the ' This ' as ' my ' and ' mine/ in much the same 
way as a man in his daily life, while ordinarily feeling 
himself as one and identified with his body, thoughts and 
feelings, yet somehow realises himself as the possessor 
of these and speaks of them as this is l my ' body or these 
thoughts and feelings are ' mine 2 / 

This experience of equalisiog the realisation of the 
two sides of the relation of identity, namely, 'I am This*, 
and also of what may be called possession — of one of the 
two sides as belonging to the other — is called the Sad 

1. Comp. imt *rf^p^:} Ish. Prat., III. i. 3. 

2. swnnfSiw*f fi[ sf^sfa9c§;*ft : 5 leh. Prat., III. i. 3. 


Vidya or Shuddha Vidya— the state of Experience (or 
knowledge) in which the true relation of things is realised. 

That such a state follows and must follow the previ- 
ous ones may be seen from our own individual experiences 
in similar circumstances. 

From the balancing in realisation of the two factors, 
the ' I ' and the % This/ of the experience in this state, and 
from simultaneously realising the one as belonging to 
the other, there also follows an important result ; namely, 
there arises, for the first time, what may be called the 
Experience of diversity-in-unity-and-identity (Bheda- 
bheda) 1 . This new Experience may really be said to 
correspond at a lower stage, as just stated, to the one 
which enables an individual human being to regard his 
body and thoughts and <.feelings as at once diverse and 
different from and yet one and identical with himself, and 
to think and speak of their totality as at once ' I ' and 
'mine/ This Experience arises in the Shuddha Vidya 
State because, as the Experiencer has his attention — or 
what corresponds to it in a lower state — drawn equally 
to himself as the ' I ' of the Experience and to the ' This ' 
as what we have called the object of the Experience, he 
naturally realises, on the one hand, some contrast between 
the ( I ', which is felt as an absolutely undivided Unity, 
and the c This ', which, as the prototype of the multifari- 
ousness in the future Universe of the sensible and psy- 
chical experience, is se§n as other than such a Unity — as 
a something which has in it at least the germs of diver- 
sity; — and, on the other, feels that this is yet somehow 
one and identical with himself, as being really nothing 
else than his own Experience, i. e. his own thoughts and 
feelings, if we may use such terms in this connection. In 
our individual lives also as ordinary human beings, the 

1. Or, as it is also called, 'to<t^i'; IbK Prat., III. I 5. 
Comp. also ^^fa*forwRH*^i (sf^i)j Svachchh., iv. 95. 

73 • 

corresponding experience of diversity-in-unity-and-identi- 
ty in regard to the body and thoughts and feelings is 
possible, because, while our attention is simultaneously 
drawn, willingly or unwillingly, to what, on the one hand, 
is realised as the ' I ' and, on the other, to the thoughts, 
feelings and bodily states, a contrast is, as a consequence 
of this simultaneous noticing of the dual factors of the 
Experience, also felt — the 'I' being fel]) as a Unity and the 
rest as a diversity and yet as somehow one and identical 
with the unity of the ' 1/ 

Such an Experience is possible in the Shuddha 
Vidya State, and not in the previous ones, because in 
these latter the c attention ' of the Experiencer is, as it 
were, one sided. In the Sada Shiva Tattva it is drawn 
chiefly to the ' I '-side, while in # the Ishvara Tattva the 
'gaze' is fixed principally on the c This '-side — on what 
constitutes the Aishvarya, i. e. } the Lordly State, of the 
Experiencer. There is, therefore, in these states, little 
chance of what may be called a comparison between 
the two aspects of the Experience ' I am This/ and there- 
fore of realising both the contrast and the identity which 
there subsist between the two. 

As another result of this realisation of contrast and 
of the experience of diversity-in-unity-and-identity, the 
1 This ' of the experience is now realised as not a pure and 
undivided * this ' or a unit, but as a whole, L e., an ' All- 

Further, as the 'All-this 5 at this stage is of the nature 
of pure ideas, — of thoughts and feelings, — they are natur- 
ally realised as proceeding from, and originated and creat- 
ed by, the Experiencer himself, in much the same way as 
a limited human being realises his own thoughts and 
feelings as his own creations. 

The whole Experience in this state, therefore, assumes 
a form which may be btated as follows: — 


/ am all-thi$ and aU-this is mine as part and 
parcel of myself and all this proceeds from and 
is created by me — I am the author of all this 1 . 

In such an experience there is and must bo, as is 
obvious, some movement of ' thought ' — some action. 
There is, in the first place, a movement of 'attention' from 
the 'This' to the 'I^and again, as it were, all over 
and all round the ',This/ so as to realise it as an ' All-this* 
as distinguished from the bare ' This ' of the previous 
state. This is all very different from the absolute hush 
and stillness of the divine wonder of the Sada Shiva 
stage and also from that steady and immovable ' gaze ' 
at the glory of the Divine State which there is in the 
Ishvara Tattva. While in these Tattvas there is thus 
motionlessness, there are in the Shuddha Vidya state 
movement and action — #r what, in a iower stage of mani- 
festation, correspond to these. In the Shuddha Vidya, 
therefore, the Kriya aspect of the Divine Shakti is most 
manifest. 2 

So far, the manifestation of the Universe is a purely 
Ideal one; and being Ideal it is the 'Perfect and Pure Way 
or Order ' ( Shuddhadh van ) without any blemish in it. 
In these purely Ideal States of manifestation, % e„ in the 

1. It may perhaps be spoken of as the Universal Ahan- 
kara. Comp. h^t imA fipr^: Ish. Prat. IV. i. 12 as an expression 
of the experience of this state; also *wi ttcrarftFTFfarc* in 
which terms the experiencer at this stage is described; Pra. 
Vi., III. i. 6. 

There is a slight difference in the definition given of 
Sad Vidya in the various works on the Trika, and Utpala 
quotes several views of it. The definition and description 
given here are substantially those of Utpala and Abhinava 

2. But, as already pointed out, according to Utpala, 
Kriya Shakti is manifest in the Ishvara Tattva. He, however, 
speaks of only three aspects of Shakti, viz. Ichchha, Jiiana 
and Kriya, the Chit and Ananda aspects being regarded as 


Pure Order, the things are realised as they truly are, and 
therefore they are the regions of pure and true knowledge 
( Sad Vidya or Shuddha Vidya. ) 

Moreover they are the manifestation of the Universal, 
as distinguished from the limited aspects of the Experi- 
ence. That is to say, in these states the Experiencing 
entities are Universal beings who realise themselves actu- 
ally as such, and have for their Expedience the whole of 
thenmiversal ' All-this/- — in different forms, no doubt, in 
the different states constituting the Pure Order, but, in no 
particular state, with any part of the ' This ' hidden away 
from them, 

B.— The Limited Individual Experience. 

II. Maya and hep progeny. 

6— 11. The Six Kahchukas. 

The manifestation which now, that is after the 
appearance of the Shuddha Vidya, begins, is that »of the 
Universe which constitutes the experience of limited 
beings, who, as such, realise not the whole of the universal 
' All-this ' but only limited aspects of it, and who also 
regard themselves as mutually exclusive, limited entities. 
This latter manifestation may therefore be spoken of as 
the Limited process, as distinguished from the Universal 
process described above. And, as consisting of limited 
states of Experience, the manifestation from this point 
onward is called the Ashuddhadhvan — the Impure and 
Imperfect Way or Order — and also the Mayadhvan, 
the Maya's Way, because the principle or factor which 

included in these tbree. And the difference in his view of the 
severally manifested aspects of the Shakti in the several Tatt- 
vas may be due to this fact. The view given here of the 
several manifestations of the Shakti is that of Abhinava 


comes into manifestation as the first product of this Order, 
and which afterwards dominates all the rest of it, is what 
is called Maya. 

How what is essentially pure and perfect comes to 
be impure, and how £ evil ' — as it is put — at all enters the 
Universe will be explained later. For the present it is 
enough for our purpose just to recognise that, from this 
stage onward, the manifestation is of a limited and, there 
fore, an imperfect and impure Order; and that the first 
product of this order is what is termed Maya. 

This Maya is, as will be seen presently, what may be 
called a Force, namely, of obscuration 1 ; and therefore, as a 
Force or Shakti, is and can be but an aspect of the Divine 
Shakti. Its chief function is to obscure and thereby 
limit the Experience in regard to the true nature of 
both what is experienced and the Experiencer himself. 

And it comes into manifestation just at this stage 
for the same reasons and in obedience to the same 
or a similar law, as we find in operation in our daily 
lives under conditions which are also similar ; namely, as 
we fall asleep 2 , when, after the enjoyment of a thing for 
a while, our interest flags, or, after some activity, we are 
overtaken by a feeling of tiredness and lassitude, and the 
scene which we have been enjoying, or what we have 
been acting on, is obscured from our view. 

Similarly, the All-Experiencer of the Shuddha Vidya 
begins, when he has enjoyed the 'AU-this' for a time, 
to feel as it were a sense of tiredness and lassitude — if 
it may be permitted to use such expressions in regard to 
the conditions of such an Ideal state of Experience. He 

1. fctfteH^tf HWiPrwr 3^5 Tsh. Prat., III. i. 7. 

For references to texts on the whole of this section 
on Maya and the five other Kanchukas ( Viz., Kala, Niyati, 
Raga, Vidya and Kala ) see Appendix IV. 

2. Comp. gFR^rpft^si^; Tantrasara, Ahn. 8. 


is overtaken, in other words, by what must be a Power 
or Force. And it is this Force which is called Maya. 
And, as he thus comes under the influence of Maya, he 
as it were falls asleep, and the universal f All-this ' passes 
out of his view as a clear perception; that is to say, it is 
obscured, there arising in its place but an Experience, 
rather a feeling., of a vague, indistinct and undefined 
something which is practically the same as the feeling 
of a ' Nothing. ' j 

And as this happens, i. e t) as the All-Experiencer 
assumes an aspect of as it were falling asleep, the 
relations which it previously had with the 'All-this* are 
all changed. 

Although countless in aspects, these relations of the 
Universal Experiencer of the Shuddha Vidya to the 
Universal c AU-thia' — prior to 4he latter fading into an 
indistinct something — are, as clearly defined and distinct 
types, only five, and may be symbolised, in terms which 
are really only applicable in a lower stage of manifesta- 
tion, as follows. » 

1. Co-evality or an alwaysness of presence with, 

and therefore of the experience of, the whole 
of the 'All-this;' — in Sanskrit, Nityatva. (lit. 
alwaysness or eternity ). 

2. Unrestricted access to and operation on the whole 
of the 'All-this', that is, all-pervasiveness or 
all-inclusiveness, without the necessity of being 
confined to a restricted area, and of having 
experiences therein under restricting conditions 
of cause, sequence, occasion and the like; — in 
Sanskrit, Vyapakatva ( lit. all-reachingness or 
all-obtainiugness. ) l 

1. L e. Omnipresence which, from one point of view, is 
presence in all space, and, from another, presence in no space 
t. e. transcending all space. 

. 78 

3. All-interestedness, that is, the relation of having 
an equal interest in, and therefore equally 
possessing and enjoying, the whole of the 'All- 
this'; that is to say all-completeness and there- 
fore all -satisfaction, there remaining nothing 
outside its possession and therefore there being 
no feeling of want ; — in Sanskrit, Purnatva ( lit. 
fullness ). 


4. All-consciousness, all-knowledge or all-vision, 
being conscious of the whole of the 'All-this'; — in 
Sanskrit, Sarvajiiatva, ( lit. all-knowingness or 
omniscience. ) 

and 5. All-authorship; — in Sanskrit, Sarva-kartritva, 
( lit. all-makingness. ) 

Now, as the All-Expe*iencer assumes a 'sleepy' aspect, 
as he does under the influence of Maya, and as, on this 
account, the 'All-this* begins to fade away from his vision, 
there takes place a change in his Experience ; and, with 
the change thus brought about, there arises a change also 
in these five typical aspects of his relation to the 'All- 
this'. And they then become respectively the relations of 

a. Time i. e. limited duration — that is to say the 

relation with the experienced as past, present 
and future (technically called Kala; lit, counting 
or flowing. The determinant of When ) ; 

b. Restriction or Regulation, viz., in regard to 

presence in sp&ce, i. e. y in regard to access, field 
of operation and so on, leading to the necessity 
of having experiences under the regulating 
conditions of cause, sequence, occasion and the 
like — such conditions never existing in the case 
of an Experiencing Being which is always and 
everywhere present with, or related to, every- 
thing, (technically, Niyati; lit. Restriction or 
Regulation, The determinant of Where ); 

79 • 

g\ Limitod Interest, ( technically, Raga; lit. sticking 
to, attachment to something or somethings in 
particular, and therefore dissatisfaction, according 
as interest in one thing flags, as it does and must, 
and it moves on to another thing ); 

d. Limited Consciousness ( i. e. pure awareness ) or 
knowledge, ( technically, Vidya; lit. knowledge); 1 

an4 c. Limited Authorship, ( techrflcally, Kala; lit. art 
or power of limited creation ). 

And this happens in the following way : — 

In order to bring about the desired end, Maya makes 
the Experiencer feel himself one with the experienced — 
the experienced which is no longer what it was in the Sada- 
khya and the Aishvara states, but is already perceived more 
or less as an Anatman or not-SelPi. e. other than the Self of 
the Experience. This is necessary, because there can really 
be no change in the Experiencer himself — he being, by his 
very nature as Chaitanya, absolutely unchangeable. All 
change and limitation, therefore, which he majr ever 
experience in regard to himself, as distinguished from the 
experienced, can be only of a super-imposed character — 
being really changes in the experienced when the latter is 
already perceived as a something other, or at least 
partially other, than himself* For there can be no experi- 
ence of change even in the experienced so long as it 
remains absolutely undifferentiated from the Experiencer 
who, remaining what he is, realises, it as an inseparable 
aspect of himself. The super-imposition, therefore, is 
possible only when the Experiencer comes to identify 
himself in feeling with the experienced, after it has once 
been already perceived as ?io2-himself, — at least to a cer- 
tain degree, as it is in the Shuddha Vidya State. By this 
identification only can Maya infect the Experiencer with 

1. Jfiana sometimes means also limited knowledge in 
the Trika. Comp, jrri 3**: ; Shiv, Su., i. 2. 

81 ♦ 

feet and limited. They change, as also said above, respec- 
tively into the vague experiences of 

1. Change in the Experiencer himself i. e. of Time 

which is the same thing as the experience of 
change ( Kala ) ; 

2. Confinement to a limited location and therefore 

restricted access and Regulation as *.o cause, 
sequence, occasion and the li^e ( Niyati ) ; \ 

• 3. Limited Interest so as to find oneself attending 
to one or a few things at a time ( Raga ) ; 

4. Limited Consciousness ( Vidya ) ; 
and 5. Limited Authorship — ( Kala ) 2 . 

And the way these changes in the Experiencer are 
produced by the operation of Maya is something like the 
following: — # # 

The Experiencer, after he has for a time c gazed ' at 
and enjoyed the grandeur of the 'All-this/ feels as it 
were ' proud ' of it, and becomes * immersed ' in the 
thought : c All-this' is mine; I am the author of ' All-this.' 
As this thought grows in strength, the Experiencer 
becomes entirely * absorbed ' in it and with the absorbtion 
comes a feeling of identification, as it may to any of us 
in our daily lives, when thinking too much of a thing as 
i I ' and ' mine '. 

With absorption, and therefore with identification 
thus produced by Maya, the Experiencer loses the realisa- 
tion of c himself ' as the Self of tjie Experience ; and as 
this happens he becomes sleepy . 3 

1. Niyati also loads to the experience of Desha or space, 
i. e., the experience of spatial or positional relations. 

2. The order given here of the five Kaiichukas or 
Limitations is that of Utpalacharya ( see Vritti on Ish. 
Prat.y IIL i. 9). Abhinava Gupta counts them in the follow- 
ing order: — Kala, Vidya, Raga, Kala and Niyati. 

3. Comp. gswfaresF* * Tantrasdra, Aim, 8. 


As the Experiencer falls asleep, the perception of the 
'All-this' itself, in which he had himself been at first 
lost, grows dim. It then is realised not as a clear and 
clearly defined ' All-this, ' bat as a vague, indistinct and 
undefined something which is practically the same as 
' Nothing ' ( Shunya 1 ), not unlike the 'nothing 1 of the 
experience of the really dreamless deep-sleep state in our 
daily life. 

With this change in the Experiencer : — * 

1. What was Nityatva becomes Kala as the Experi- 
encer formulates in thought, however indis- 
tinctly, the new experience, and, as it were, says 
to himself: " I was erstwhile enjoying All-this 
and now I am feeling but a dim shadow of it." 
Needless to say there is in this experience scar* 
cely a clear realisation of the T, such as would 
be necessary if the experience of this state were 
really expressed in words. It is only a dim 
experience of the change and therefore of Time; 
and it would be expressed in the way stated 
above only if the realisation of the T were as 
distinct as it is in the ordinary waking conscious* 
ness of daily life, or, better still, in the Shuddha 
Vidya stage described previously. 

2. Vyapakatva changes into Niyati as the Experi- 
encer is constrained to the dim perception of the 
vague 'some-this' — and nothing else — as an 
inevitable sequence of the previously realised 

3. Purnatva is reduced to Raga as the Interest in 
the universal c All-this ' flags, overtaken by the 
sleep of Maya as the Experiencer now is. 

1, This should throw some light on the Buddhist 
doctrine of the * Shunya ' which, though a * Nothing, ' is still 
regarded as a reality. 

83 # 

4. Sarvajfiatva becomes only Vidya, perceiving only 
a limited something — a dim, vague and undefined 
'Something* which is as good as Nothing. 
And 5. Sarvakartritva assumes the form of Kala as the 
drowsy Being feels how little he is now capable 
of accomplishing. 

Thus when, after the appearance of the Shuddha 
Vidya, Maya, the Obscuring Force, cames into play, she 
brings into existence, along with her, ( or, more correctly 
perhaps, as her progeny ) five other forms of Limitation, 
And with these she enwraps the Experiencer — as a baby 
with swaddling clothes — who thereby becomes oblivious 
of his true Divine State ; and, forgetting his own glory, 
falls as it were into a sleep in which he has but a vague 
notion of experiencing an equally vague, indistinct and 
undefined 'Something' into whicli the glorious 'All-this* of 
the previous state has now been reduced. 

III. Two Principles of the Limited 
Individual Subject-Object. 

12. The Purusha. 


This Experiencer, thus put into sleep by Maya, who 
has hidden away from him his own Divine State and Glory, 
and has besides fully restrained him by wrapping round 
him the swaddling clothes of the five limitations of Kala, 
Niyati, Raga, Vidya and Kala, and thus vaguely feeling an 
equally vague and indefinite ' Something' as the content 
of his experience — this Experiencer in this state of 
experience is technically called Purusha, which we may 
translate as the limited Individual Spirit, or simply Spirit, 
(lit. Man; hence to be referred to as he). 

And it is produced, let me repeat, by the operation of 
Maya in the way indicated above, after the manifestation 
of the Shuddha Vidya. 

And as, in order to bring the Purusha into existence, 
Maya wraps him up both in herself and in the other five 


forms of limitation, these together with herself are called 
the six Kafichukas i. e. sheaths, cloaks or swaddling 
clothes of the Spirit. 

And while Maya, together with the five other 
Kafichukas, makes the existence of the limited Individual 
Spirit as such — i. e. of the Purusha — possible, the Purusha 
himself and in reality is only the Divine Experiencer 
who becomes thus limited by allowing himself to be en- 
wrapped and enshrouded by Maya and her progeny, but 
yet without undergoing any real change in himself inas- 
much as he still remains as he ever was, not only in the 
Shuddha Vidya stage but also in the other forms which 
come into existence previous to the manifestations of the 
latter, and, ultimately, as it were, behind and beyond 
them all and yet pervading them all, as Parama Shiva, or 
Para Samvit, the Supremest Experience. That is to say 
the All-experiencer becomes the Purusha, to use the 
technical language of the system, following the Abhasa 
proces^ which leaves entirely unaffected the primary as 
well as each successively originating source, even when 
products come into manifestation. 

Not only this; when the process reaches the stage in 
which the Purusha comes into manifestation, something 
more also happens. For when the Purusha comes into 
being, by means of the Abhasa process, the All-Experien- 
cer is thereby not only not affected in any way and 
remains the same as he t ever was, but he goes on produc- 
ing such Purushas and multiplying their number indefi- 
nitely; that is to say, he goes on apparently dividing and 
expanding himself to an indefinite extent, without ever 
showing the slightest sign of exhaustion and diminution. 

In other words, the All- Experiencer, while remaining 
ever the same, produces, by the Abhasa process, not only 
a single Purusha, but, by repeating the same process, 
becomes, i. e. experiences himself as, an endless number of 


such Purusbas who realise themselves as all differentiated, 
and even separated, from one another, as, let us say, a 
number of living cells may experience themselves as 
distinct and even separated from one another even though 
they may be, indeed are, produced and differentiated 
from a single source of life ; or, as the various ' personali- 
ties ' ' dissociated ' i. e. differentiated from a single ' per- 
sonality ' — namely, the one i subliminal self/ — may realise 
themselves as mutually distinct and even as independent 
of each other ; or, even as the ultimate units of matter — by 
whatever name they may finally come to be known, elec- 
trons, ions or otherwise — may come to exist as mutually 
exclusive entities from an all-filling single source, by a 
process of apparent division which still leaves that source 
all unaffected 1 . 

This happens* just because the All-Experiencer 
remains what he has ever been even when a Purusha is pro- 
duced. And remaining always what he is in his aspect as 
himself, in another aspect he also constantly falls asleep ; 
that is to say, he is falling asleep, or, is assuming a limit- 
ed aspect, every successive moment of time. [ That is, as 
it would appear to us limited Experiences. There are 
really no moments of time from the standpoint of the all- 
experiencer but only that Eternity which is beyond all 
time conceived as an aggregate, i. e. as a measureless suc- 
cession, of moments. See note % page 61 ante.] But while 
the aspect in which he ever remains himself is and must 
be one and the same, the 'sleeping*' or the limited aspect 
he assumes every moment of time cannot be so. That is 
to say, while he is always one and the same in his aspect 

1. This process of multiplication or differentiation is 
really only another phase of the operation of Maya which 
not only obscures but also divides or re-duplicates by first 
obscuring the reality, Comp. the following : — 

Pct rrc*r ftorafavtf %&* srrf$t ^ n Tattva Sand., 5. 


as himself, what he assumes as a ' sleeping' or limited 
aspect every moment of time is a fresh or a new one; and 
he thus produces as many separate aspects as there are 
moments of time. That is to say, he produces an infinite 
i. e. unlimited number of aspects which are none other 
than the unlimited number of Purushas which constitute 
the aggregate of individual Spirits, actual or possible, in 
the Universe. 

This happens at this stage, and not in the previous 
stages of the Pure Order — even though in those stages 
also the source from which the products come into mani- 
festation remains ever the same and unaffected in itself — 
because in those stages there enters no element of limita- 
tion of the hind produced by Maya. There the products 
are universal and unlimfted as to time, space, form or 
characteristics; and as such none of them could be a mani- 
fold in the sense of ha vie g mutually exclusive limitation. 

Tfcere indeed is a sort of manyness even in the vari- 
ous stages of the Pure Order as will be seen later. But 
for all practical purposes the experiencing entity in each 
of the stages of that Order is a unity. For if there be 
more than one Experiencer in any one of those stages, 
they are all so alike in all respects and so much identified 
with one another as to the content of experience, equally 
experiencing the whole of the Experienced, — the ' All- 
this ' and the c This ' of the Ideal Universe respectively in 
the Sad Vidya and the Aishvara stages — or equally realis- 
ing themselves as the pure Being of the Sadakhya and as 
the pure Bliss and the pure ' I ' of the Shakti-Shiva stage, 
that they constitute in each of these stages practically a 
single and identical experiencing entity, without any one 
of them, in a particular stage, in any way whatsoever limit- 
ing or excluding the others belonging to the same stage. 
And if they are all identical in respect of the content of 


experience they are not limited by time or space either. 
There being no sort of change in their experience, so long 
as the particular stage in which they are manifest lasts, 
they are beyond all conditions of past, present and future; 
that is to say, they realise themselves as existing eternally, 
or, which is the same thing, in an alwaysness which bears 
the same relation to the flow of past, present and future, 
i.6.of time, as a mathematical point does to the various ex- 
tensions and directions of positional relation i. e. of space. 
Similarly, from one point of view, they occupy all-space, 
being universally present everywhere, and from another, 
only what is a mathematical point. 

Thus, multiplicity in the product, in the sense of 
limited and mutually exclusive manyness, begins only 
with the introduction of limitation L e. with the operation 
of the Self -hiding Pawer or Forca of Maya, who or which 
is thus not only a power of ' obscuration ' but, as said 
above, also one of multiplication and differentiation. 

Further, and finally, as, by obscuration, lim^ation 
differentiation and multiplication, Maya brings the 
Purushas into existence, each of these numberless 
Purushas becomes an Anu, a non-spatial point — almost 
like a mathematical point. For limitation of an omni- 
present something which is itself non-spatial — as Parama 
Shiva is — cannot have any other meaning. It cannot 
be anything with a limited extension or with a * middle 
measure ' as it is technically called. 1 

13. The Prakriti and the Bunas. 

* • 

Simultaneously with the manifestation of the Purusha 
by the operation of Maya, there is produced another very 
important result. It is already said that, ' sleeping ' as 
he is, the Purusha still has the Experience of a vague 
and indefinite ' Something ', which forms at this stage the 

1. <$wmftT qftflnren^ wgBPft Prat. Vrit,, III. ii. 4. 


object — if such a term may be used in this connection — 
of the Experience. Now, this vague, undefined and in- 
definite ' Something ' is a factor which is not to be ignored. 
For it can be nothing else than the Universal ' All-tins' 
now perceived through the influence of Maya in this dim 
and indefinite fashion ; and as such it is the root and 
source of all future experience. How ifc is so will be 
shown presently. 'For the present we have just to re- 
cognise its presence in the Experience of the Purukha. 
Indeed there can be no Purusha without it, so long as a 
Purusha is under the influence of Maya, as all Purushas 
are, till by a process to be explained later they can rise 
above it, and thus practically cease to be Purushas in the 
sense of experiencing entities enwrapped in the Kanchu- 
kaa For a Purusha is^ only a limited form of the All- 
Experiencer of the previous state ; and as such it can no 
more exist without its relations than the All-Experiencer 
can. Relations there must be in the Purusha. Only these 
relations in the case of the All-Experiencer of the previ- 
ous state are of a universal nature, while in the 
Purusha they become necessarily limited and completely 
contracted. But however contracted, they can never be 
relations unless there be, above and beyond the Purusha, 
some other term or terms which they relate with the 
Purusha. Thus for the existence of the Purusha as a 
being with relations — which relations, let me repeat, are 
essential to him for his very manifestation as Purusha— 
it is necessary that there must be a second term to which 
the Purusha is related. And this second term in this state 
can be no other than the ' Indefinite Something ' mention- 
ed above. It is thus a most important factor — as important 
as the Purusha himself. And it comes into manifestation 
simultaneously with the Purusha. Indeed, if the Purusha 
is only the All-Experiencer, put to sleep and ' cribbed, 
cabined and confined/ this ' Indefinite Something ' of the 


experience at this stage is nothing but the Universal 
' All-this ' now dimly and vaguely perceived 2 , 

Coming into manifestation simultaneously with the 
Purusha, it is called his Prakriti — She who affects the 
Purusha or whom he has placed before him to be acted 
upon by and to react upon. 

Thus the Purusha and the Prakriti are nothing but 
the limited representations of the two # factors in the two- 
sided Experience of the Shuddha Vidya state. And as the 
number of Purushas produced by the process described 
fibove is, as has been pointed out, unlimited and unending, 
similarly the Prakritis are also infinite in number, one for 
each Purusha, the one universal All-this being perceived 
dimly by the different Purushas as so many different 'this'es 
diversely reflected in the ocean of Maya, as different per- 
sons may perceive the same sua as so many different 
reflections in different parts of the sea. 2 

Ht^qgiRfSW *m*fa ^Tcrvsn^rm *if&'- * Tantramra % Ahn. 8. 

^sr*rrsf *3>£ ft*r v&m q*t% ^arr u Tantral., Ahn. 9. 
era [wr] f*n?r Jifrrgf^rcT^T^ wft^ %fa *n^ 1 ^^r^t^f ^ <raidsft 
*$£, cT^W^T ttgssftratf'-; * Viveka on above. 

Ht^fct aracft jft* asaTOCTqwrf^ 11 Tantrdl. Ahn. 9. 
2. Note this fundamental difference between the Trika 
and the Sankhya conceptions of the Prakriti, The Sankhya 
Prakriti is one and universal for all and thus corresponds in 
this respect to the Maya of the Trika. See also note 1 above, 
and Appendix V. 


The Experience of his Prakriti, on the part of a 
Purusha,is one in which, while there is no movement what- 
ever of thought or activity, — it being a state, as it were, of 
eleep, — there is no specific feeling of any sort either. That 
is to say, it is a state in which the Experienced does not 
produce in the Experiencer either that calm feeling of mere 
presentation or mere awareness in which the Experiencer re- 
mains blissfully motionless, calmly enjoying what is before 
him ; or that disquieting feeling of excitement or interest 
which moves him forth into activity of some sort ; or 
even that feeling of dulling callousness and stupefaction to 
which one quite inertly submits. It is therefore a state 
of Equipoise, — Equipoise, namely, between the calm and 
peaceful feeling of pleasing but unmoving awareness, 
pure and simple, the active feeling of a moving interest 
and the passive and ipiert feeling^ of stupefaction — 
Feelings or Affections for which the technical Sanskrit 
names are respectively Sukha, Duhkha and Moha ( lit- 
erally, Pleasure, Pain and Delusion or Bewilderment). 

And this is so, because there is no one element or 
feature which is more prominent, rather more prominently 
manifest, than others in the Prakriti — it being merely a 
vague and undefined ' Something ' in which all the dis- 
tinguishing features of the various content of the Universal 
'All-this' are obliterated — so that there can be nothing 
standing out which can induce any of these feelings in the 
Experiencer. The Experience of Prakriti, therefore, being 
an equipoise of the thr^e Feelings, of tsalm, peaceful and 
blissful Awareness, of moving Interest and Passion, and of 
dull and callous Stupefaction, Prakriti herself, that is the 
indefinite and undefined ' Something ' itself of the exper- 
ience at this stage, is and must be a thing in which all 
Elements or Features capable of inducing, or affecting as, 
these three Feelings are held in a state of Equipoise. 

Now, the Elements or Features which can induce the 
three Feelings of calm Awareness, moving Passion and 


dulling Stupefaction (ofSukha, Duhkha and Moha, as 
they are technically called in Sanskrit ) are and must be 
themselves only three, corresponding to the number of 
the feelings they can produce in an individual — feelings 
which are essentially different from one another and of 
which there are no more than the three named above. 
They are called in Sanskrit the Sattva, the Rajas and 
the Tamas, ( producing respectively Sjikha, Duhkha and 
Moha) — terms which must be retained untranslated, be- 
cause there are no single words in English that can 
adequately render all that these technical names imply ; 
for they are not only the originators of the above named 
Feelings but also a great deal more as will be seen later. 
Collectively they are called the three Gunas, meaning 
literally the three Threads, as of a chord, or three Factors, 
Attributes or Features. • 

And as, in the Prakriti, all Feeling-inducing or 
Affective Features are held in a State of equipoise, Prakriti 
is, speaking technically, only the equipoise of the three 
Gunas of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas 1 . 

And as there is on the part of a Purusha, no specific 
experience in his Prakriti, but only a general feeling of a 
vague and indefinite something, Prakriti is called 'the 
generally-experienced ( bhogya-samanya )/ 1 

From Prakriti, as 'the generally experienced/ is pro- 
duced everything of specific experiences, which the limited 
Individual Spirit or the Purusha ean ever have, whether 
as objects or as the means whereby such objects are 

And the process following which these means and 
objects of experience come into manifestation is much 
the same as has been recognised by the Sarikhya system. 

1. Comp. cr^r [ iTfrf&ncr ] g WNnmuiwf *rajt*FRT g*mrwc$ 
Tantrasara, Aim. 8. 


There are slight differences of course, but it is substan- 
tially the same process. One of the reasons why there are 
any differences between the teachings of the two systems 
is perhaps to be found in the fact that, while the Shaiva 
system makes a clear distinction between the Universal, or 
the Pure and Perfect, and the limited Individual, that is, 
the Impure and Imperfect processes, the Sankhya— i. e. 
the Sankhya as represented by the Karikas of Ishvara 
Krishna, the commentary on the Tattva-Samasa and 
apparently also the Sankhya Sutras, which is a much 
later work, but not the Sankhya of the Puranas — makes 
no such distinction At least this distinction is not apparent 
from the above named main Texts on the subject, even 
though Vijnana Bhikshu seeks to establish it by regard- 
ing the process from a two-fold point of view, viz., the 
Samashti and the Vyashti i. e. Collective and Distribu- 
tive, as indeed it can be and is so regarded even by the 
Trika, as will be seen later. However this may be, the 
process of manifestation from now on, as recognised by 
the Ttfika, is practically the same as that described in the 
Sankhya. We may therefore try to understand it in the 
light of the latter system. Indeed, our understanding of 
it will be greatly facilitated by a reference to the Sankhya. 

Now, Purusha and Prakriti come into manifestation, 
as said above, by the All-Experiencer assuming, as it 
were, a sleeping aspect. In that state the All-Experi- 
encer has no clear notion of the ' All-this ' but only feels 
it as a mere ' Something/ which is entirely vague, indefi- 
nite and undefined. Nor does he realise himself with 
any better or greater clearness as the c I ' of the Experi- 
ence. Indeed its self-realisation as the ' I ' is as vague 
as its realisation of the ' Something ' of the Experience, 
and may be likened to the realisation of the c I ' in the 
deep and really dreamless sleep of our individual experi- 
ence. And it is a point which should be clearly noted. 


IV. Principles of mental Operation. 
14-16. Buddhi, Ahahkara and Manas. 

This being the experience of the Purusha-Prakriti 
state, the manifestation which follows next is, in one 
respect at least, not unlike the experience we sometimes 
have immediately on waking 1 . It is technically 
called, as in the Sahkhya, the Buddhi, which term 
may perhaps be translated as Consciousness-as-such, but 
which, like so many others, must \>e left untranslated. 
We shall only explain what it means. For a clear com- 
prehension, however, of what Buddhi really is, we have 
to consider it along with two other factors the manifesta- 
tion of which follows that of the Buddhi. These are 
technically called Ahahkara and Manas, of which the one 
may perhaps be translated as the Personal Consciousness, 
Personal Ego or Self-apperception and the other as 
Imagination ( whieh however i& only one of the functions 
of Manas ). 

Now, to understand what these three, Buddhi, 
Ahahkara and Manas — or, as we shall take them here in 
their reverse order, Manas, Ahaiikara and Buddhi — really 
are, we must make an analysis of the psychical process 
which is daily and hourly going on in us. 

When we perceive a thing and think or speak of it, 
saying f it is so and so ' — it is a cow, for instance — our 
experience of this perception of a cow as expressed in 
words or expressible, i. e., conceived or thought of, involves 
a complicated process which consists of at least four 2 
clearly defined operations, even though they may not 
always be realised as thus defined at the time one has 
the experience, not only on account of the great swiftness 
with which these operations are gone through, but also 
because of their simultaneousness which is not unoften 
the case. They may be stated as follows : — 

1. Comp. gBtfaTdfaTHtfj Yoga- Vdrltika on ii. 19. 

2. I say at least four, because the Trika recognises 
several more not recognised by the Sankhya and others. 


The first operation is that of the senses, — sensation 
as it is called; ( Alochana in Sanskrit 1 ). In this very 
first operation there is involved another, namely, that of 
what may be called Attention, without the co-operation 
of which there can be no sensation at all, — as is known 
to all from experience, — even when what are called the 
objects of sense perception are in relation with the senses. 
But, apart from this operation of the 'Attention' — 
which operation may be considered as practically one wrth 
that of the senses, inasmuch as the latter can never work 
without ib, and which therefore need not be separately 
noted here for our present purpose, although we shall 
have to take it into consideration later on — there is 
another operation, which as it were builds up, or rather 
carves, the image of the object to be perceived and thought 
of, out of the whole blockg of sensation^ which are, at the 
time, pressing upon the experiencing subject from all 
sides. This operation consists in ' desiring ' 2 i. e. seeking 
for and 'selecting 9 * a certain group, to the exclusion* of 
others, £ut of the confused and confusing heap, with a view 
to or with the intention of, making a particular image 
or a particular object of consciousness with this speci- 

1. s^nf^g <T$fFn** srrerhnwrfa^ %fa : ' Sdnkh. Kdr. 28. 

What is given by sensation or Alochana is absolutely un- 
speakable i. e, uncommunicable to others, as it consists of an 
absolute particularity. Hence it is said that it is 

'^^^Tf^f^irT^^^r^gT^^jrn'; Tattva-kau. on the above. 

2. x&w\ or w%$q-, Tantraloka, Ahn. ix. See infra. For the 
various meanings of s^t see also Appendix VI, 

3. «nr*S^ or 5rs[. See infra p. 99 note 2, the passage 
quoted from the Tantraloka where the function of Manas is 
described as sarcNNr. First there is 5*nN*^ by Manas, and then 
the s^f%w is assimilated ( arf$mcr ) by Ahankara. Nar&yana 
(Sdnkh. Chan. 29.) speaks of the function of manas as ^cj?&, — 

Vachaspati Mishra ( Tattva-kau, 27 ) also speaks of 
the function of Manas as <Rnr*d{, — '^wfaF^ <Rrct ^ej^ftL' 


ally marked out group. 1 Thus, for instance, as I am per- 
ceiving my cow, I am having, crowding upon me, a 
whole host of other sensations as well — those affecting 
me as the surrounding scenery, the blue of the sky, the 
green of the meadow, the singing of birds and so on. 
These are all being left out and only those affecting me as 
the cow are being sought and singled out and built into 
the image of the cow. 

This 'desiring for/ this seeking and singling out a 
certain special group from among a whole crowd of sensa- 
tions with the intention of building up, with the selected 
group, the image of an object (or, which is the same thing, 
the object itself) — this is an operation which is quite other 
than and different from the first operation of mere sensa- 
tion. It is the second operation in the process leading to the 
perception of my c6w so as to be able to think and speak 
of it It is what may be called the ' Image-making ' or 
Imaginative Operation — the operation, in this instance, 
of imaging forth the cow with the ingredients of a 
particular group of sensations 'desired for' i. ^/sought 
and selected out of a whole mass of them. 2 

It is an operation of image-making from another 
point of view also — I mean the standpoint of modern 
Western Psychology. For, according to the findings 
of that Psychology, the process of sensation consists in 
receiving by the senses not a completed picture extended 
in space, as, for instance, the colour or colours of our 
cow, like so many patches stretched out in space, but 
like so many points of that colour or those colours. The 
senses give us what is technically called a manifold — the 
manifold of the sense, 

1. *W SrHF*TcT f f^T 1^rT*T# QWQ «h*M«lcl ffct 

faforetfteff^ \ Sahkh. Chan. 27. 

2. «r^ flT*faft f%faci;?T^r *nrffir m *Fn \ Mahabharata, xii. 247. 9. 
See Appendix V. ( Chap. 254 of Kumbakonam edition ). 


Now, in order that theBe colour-points may be made 
into a whole — a whole patch or patches of colours — assum- 
ing a particular shape and form, namely, that of a parti- 
cular cow, there must be a second operation in the psy- 
chical process by which, these ' points of sensation/ the 
manifold of the sense, are gathered together and made 
into such a whole of*a particular shape and form — in 

other words, into a picture or image. 


However that may be, the image-making constitut- 
ing the second operation in the psychical process would 
not alone enable me to speak or think of the object of 
my present perception as a cow. For what I am actually 
perceiving, i. e. } the actually given of the sense, is no more 
than a mere colour-form ( supposing I am only seeing the 
cow but not hearing it m$ke a sound or produce any other 
sensation in me, in which case the imaginative operation 
would include also a synthesising or concreting process to 
be noticed later ) which is stretched out in space assuming 
a particular shape either moving or stationary. To trans- 
form this mere picture, which is hardly better than one on 
canvas, or than that of a cinematograph show, it must be 
endowed with various other properties as well, solidity, 
life and so on. Now these properties the sense now in 
operation, viz., that of sight, is not perceiving when it is 
revealing to me the cow's presence as a patch of colour 
or colours stretched out in space. They are supplied from 
somewhere else } namely, from the memory of my person- 
al experience of the paSt, stored up in myself as a parti- 
cular individual or person, i. a, out of myself. There is 
absolutely no other source but myself from which they 
can be supplied. Nor can the elements supplied be any- 
thing else but a part of my own personal self as built up 
by and with elements supplied out of experiences I have 
had as a particular person born and brought up in a 
particular situation or situations. That is to say, before 
my mere colour-form, carved out of the block of mere 

97 • 

sensations, can be transformed into the live object I am 
thinking of as my cow, it has to be endowed with 
something of myself. 

Not only this. It has to be assimilated to and identi- 
fied with 1 what is in myself as a particular person. 
For how can I think or speak of the present object as 
* cow ' unless I realise it as something similar to such 
an experience of my own in the £ast — an experience 
wLich is now part of myself ? Again, how can this assimila- 
tion and identification be possible unless and until the 
new experience be taken up into myself— brought into 
the midst of what is me and mine ? Thus not only must 
the mere image be endowed with a part of myself, before 
it can be perceived and thought of as my cow, but the 
image itself will also have to be brought into me — into 
my own self. That is to say, to use the somewhat dry 
language of philosophy, it has to be referred to what is 
already me and mine. 

It is this endowing of the sensation-image with part 
of myself and assimilating it to what is already in me, 
which constitutes the third operation in the psychical 
process giving me the perception of my cow. 

But even this operation does not quite give me my 
cow, so as to be able to think and speak of it as a cow — 
saying ' What I see before me is a cow \ 

For, before I can speak thus of the now assimilated 
image, I must not only make a -comparison with other 

1. 3?f*WT; Tantraloka, Aim. 9. See infra passage 
quoted. a?faRFTt$$frc : ; Sankh. Mr. 24. Abhimana means iden- 
tification' in thought and feeling; also assimilation, and appro- 
priation or self-ar rogation. All other meanings, such as pride, 
vanity and the like are derived from this primary meaning. 
There can be no pride or arrogance in regard to anything un- 
less the same is thought of and felt as one's own, as belonging 
to oneself. 


cows I have seen and known in the past as my personal 
experiences, but also refer it to the species cow. Till 
this is done I can never speak of the image which is 
being perceived as a cow, which statement only means 
that it is one of a species called cow. But whence do we 
get this idea of a Species ? I have never experienced 
such a thing as cow as a Species as one of my personal 
experiences — I have<known only particular and individual 
cows. There must therefore be in me a standard of 
reference which has this experience of the Species ; and it 
must be impersonal in the sense that its contents as 
such — i. e. as abstract or general ideas such as that of a 
species, of triangularity for instance — cannot be pictured 
by the individual mind of a person such as a Kama or a 
Jones, in the same way as a particular thing or act can ; 
and therefore it must ht beyond the* range of personal 
experiences which any of us as Kama or Shyama, as John 
or Jones, may have had in the past. 1 It is only by refer- 
ring to this standard that we are able to form a judgment 
such as— "It is a cow". 

This reference to such a standard is the fourth 
operation in our experience of thinking and speaking 
of an object of perception as ' such and such a thing and 
not such and such another thing' — 'as a cow and not as a 
horse or dog\ 3 

1. See the next note however. 

friwr^n' 1 '*ffc% arc, tw^i 'wrsfa wr, *r gs^' *3ptt faarcrfcr^i jftp 1 

Although beyond the actual realisation by the cons- 
ciousness of the individual as Rama or Jones, Buddhi, from 
the Trika point of view, is not entirely unknown. Only it 
cannot be pictured to one's limited personal consciousness in 
the same way as a concrete thing can. Compare the following: — 

99 • 

Now, of these operations, the first is, as is obvious, 
the one which is carried on by means of what are called 
the senses — they are the means of gaining experience in 
so far as this first operation is concerned. 

Corresponding to these means of the first operation, 
there are and must be for the other operations also what 
act as such means. And it is these means of the three 
subsequent psychic operations whfch are respectively 
called the Manas, the Ahahkara and the Buddhi. 1 

3f3[£nfa sifter sr*rr cfifWrrr cr^r 11 
?WTf3^ 1! TantraL with Ftv., Aim. 9. 

For a discussion from the Hindu point of View of 
the old, old question whether there are any general ideas at 
all, apart from and other than those gradually built up by our 
personal experiences, in the same way as the ideas of the con- 
crete are built up, see Appendix VII. 

1. On the whole of the above comp., among others, 
the following: — 

m gfas^rrawHT *sr for«foj*r srzrf^tfajofojcrr. *?$%%• suffer:, 
33&f^: w**tf%m : , arcnvrita 4<f>fciOT:, ajfiTTOfMircr^TOF $®m\ fiftfaap, 
qwwf^flr- 3T3tfs^i-, OTicrft firwi^Pcr 11 Prat. Vim,, III, i. 12, 

sN^q: 11 Tantraloka, Aim. ix, with comm, 

•ifctRrer (iii) «rararmt ffc qm^^nq^sfir ftflm ^3 *ftftft «ira<) ajw^ 


Manas is what ' desires ' i. e., seeks for and singles out 
a particular group of sensations from among a whole 
crowd of them, and builds up particular images there- 
with; or, to use a different metaphor, carves an image 
out of a whole block of sensations given by the senses 
at the time. From another point of view it is what 
synthesises the discrete manifold of the senses, and 
builds up c mental images ' of them. 

Ahan kara is what gathers and stores up the memory 
of personal experiences, and ' identifies ' and ' assimilates' 
the experiences of the present, of which experiences the 
sum total, thus held together by it, constitutes what wo 
realise as our personal ' Ego ' — as the individual and 
particular * I ' of the everyday life of limited experiencers, 
such as human beings ordinarily are. For, in so far as this 
c I ' is personal and peculiar to a man as Rama or Jones, 
— in so far as it is nothing but this — it is only an aggre- 
gate of these personal experiences either as memories or 
as actualities regarded as oneself. Aharikara is, in other 
words, what makes the c artificial ' or 'made up' i I ' of 
an individual, as distinguished from the real and inner- 
most ' I \ which every one is as Parama Shiva. The arti- 
ficial ' I ' is only produced by the identification with and 

^fa^fcp wfalN sum flrsn^rTOP i 
%*m tixw^m^^iw ft^r 11 Ibid. 
And also: 

••# «•• •«» **• ... ••# ii 

rrcr- q* ipHNg qstafarf^M^u i 
33C«rrs?Rft^ ii 

Quoted by Vachaspati Mishra on Shankh. liar. 27, and 
by Vijnanabhikshu On Sdnkh. Su. } II. 32, and also by Ani- 
ruddha on Ibid. % I. 89. , with variations. 


assimilation to the real Self of the now produced not- 
aelf. 1 

Finally ' Buddhi ' is that which, holding in it such 
general ideas as do not form the direct object of experi- 
ence as concrete facts, — facts which one can definitely 
picture to oneself, like, for instance, the mental image of 
a particular cow or that of the performance of a parti- 
cular act of kindness, ideas, in other \fcords, which lie in 
the l>ack-ground of, and are thus beyond, the ' personal 
Ego ' i. e. the Ahankara — not only supplies that standard 
of Reference which is needed for the formation of judg- 
ment, but also serves as the means whereby concrete ex- 
periences are, as it were, taken up unto itself for such 
reference and comparison. Buddhi may thus be spoken 
of as the impersonal or swperpersonal state of conscious- 
ness, or experience in a limited individual ( still as limit- 
ed y. 

1 " 3T? wft %^ nf^rftfaf^cf %vm% *&$% jfrnnrelr ar^CTPr 

3?R*Tifa*n^ gift ^smrfttHH^ i stct *& %\x J ?sm f^ccr^ $rei stk^ < 

Tantrasara % Ahn. 8. 

2. It is perhaps this state of super-personal experience, 
this Buddhi of the Hindu philosopher, which, at least in some 
of its aspects, is now being recognised in the West, by what 
has sometimes been called ( Abnormal Psychology, } as the 
subconscious or subliminal self of a mnn. 

That such a state exists, indeed that all the states and their 
respective means or instruments mentioned above exist, in 
the depth of a man's being, can be ascertained, apart from 
all reasoning, by direct experience, if we are to believe the 
Hindu Philosophers, at least those of them who have, 
in addition to theoretical knowledge, practical experience 
as well i. e. the Yogins of the right kind, ( not those dis- 
torters and torturers of the body and performers of juggling, 
hypnotising and such like feats for the delectation of the 


But though super-personal, Buddhi is not entirely 
or absolutely inconceivable. We all of us probably have 
often had an experience which may, as hinted at above, 
give us an idea as to what the experience of Buddhi may 

public, who also have come to be known by the name of Yogins, 
specially to the Western tourist ) and who repeatedly assert 
the possibility and truth of such a direct experience. While the 
Yogins claim — they Jmving trained their whole life, spiritual, 
mental, moral and physical, in a particular way — to be able to 
have this experience at will, others, even in the West, would 
seem to have had it as occasional glimpses over which they 
have little control. There is the remarkable example of Tenny- 
son who, it is reported in one of the volumes of the Nineteenth 
Century, would rise to a state of consciousness in which 
he would feel as though all that constituted his personal T 
as Tennyson had entirely vanished and would realise himself 
as above all such personality. He would get into this state, 
it is also reported, while slowly and mentally repeating 
to himself his own name — a remarkable practice which was 
very similar to the repetition on the part of the Yogins 
of particular words, or syllables of words, and of which 
one of the objects is said by the Yogins to be that, while 
it keeps one in a state of wakefulness, it also brings on a 
state of perfect peace and quiet resulting from the rythmic 
movement of the repetition. For the whole secret of Yoga, 
which is held to be the means of gaining the direct and 
first-hand experience of super-sensible realities, at first 
reasoned out or even learnt merely on faith as philosophic or 
religious truths, is that while the consciousness must be main- 
tained at the very highest pitch of keen and tense attention, 
free from all feeling of dullness or sleepiness, it must also be 
absolutely free from all disturbance and movement caused by 
an uncontrolled passion, a feeling of anger or of hate or a curi- 
ous interest, or even by an uumastered bodily condition. ( See 
Hindu Realism pp. 142-148.) However this may be, that 
Teijnyson would occasionally experience, while slowly and 
mentally repeating his own name, a state of impersonal or 
super-personal consciousness, which was not unlike the Buddhi 
of the Hindu Philosophers, would seem to be clean 


be like, — in so far only as it is an experience in which 
there is no definite and clear realisation of the ' I ' or 
personal i Ego/ This is the experience which is some- 
times had, when on waking up from a state of deep and 
profound sleep, a man opens his eyes and is conscious 
only of what just meets the senses, while yet he is quite 
oblivious of himself as an ( I ' — as such and such a person. 
Buddhi is not unlike this experience, '•inasmuch as there 
is in the Buddhi no thought of the c I ' as yet, the latter 
having already been suppressed in the Purusha-Prakriti 
state when the Expcriencer, as it were, fell asleep 1 . 

This Buddhi comes into manifestation from Prakriti, 
as the Experiencer, as it were, wakes up, following the 
same or a similar law or principle which we find in 
operation in our daily lives, as our consciousness passes 
from a state of sleep to one of wakefulness 2 . 

Now the reason why one wakes up from a state of 
deep and profound sleep is, as will be readily seen, some 
disturbance in the body — either something from outside 
affecting the body and bcdily organs or toe change 
arising in the internal condition of the body itself, say, 
its being refreshed with rest, that is to say, its being 
revivified with fresh life and vigour, things which mean 
nothing else but some change in the condition of the 
body itself. And this is so, because sleep itself is due to 
a change in the condition of the body — of the ' flesh ' — 
with which the c Spirit ' finds itself identified in feeling 
and experience. There can be really no sleep to the 
Spirit. If it finds itself asleep, it is only because it 
identifies itself with the 'flesh ' in feeling and experience. 
And it is only the sleepiness of the flesh which can at 

1. See ante p. 81, Note 3. 

2. g&Rnctfarr^; Toga- Varttika % on il 1 9. 

< 104 

all affect it, and make it also fall asleep. 1 This being the 
condition of falling asleep, — this change in the condition 
of the body with which the Spirit is identified — the wak- 
ing up from sleep also depends on some change in the 
bodily condition. And, as, following this law, the sleeping 
Experiencer of the Purusha-Prakriti state, wakes up into 
a new consciousness again, he does so only because there 
takes place some change, some disturbance ( Kshobha ) in 
the Prakriti which served the Experiencer in the Purusha- 
Prakriti state, as his body, and with which he had already 
identified himself in feeling and thus fell asleep. 

It would be interesting to discuss here how this 
disturbance — this Kshobha, as it is technically called in 
Sanskrit — at all takes place in the Prakriti, which, being 
inert, cannot of itself move- But we cannot enter into 
this discussion here as it involves the consideration of 
various other questions which can be cleared up only as we 
go on. For the present, it will be enough to say that it is 
produced by the action or will of the Experiencing Entity 
which, or who, has for his experience all the separate 
Prakritis, of all the limited Purushas, as a collective 
whole. Such an entity in regard to any Tattva is called 
its Lord ( Tattvesha ); and it is the Lord of the Prakriti 
Tattva who creates ' disturbance ' in the Prakriti of an 
individual Purusha, so that he may wake up and start 
on the round of limited life, of mixed experience of 
pleasure and pain, and thereby realise his moral worth, 
his merits and demerits, to the fullest extent. For we 
must not forget that the Universe to-be comes into 
existence for a moral purpose the true nature of which we 
shall see later on. 2 

1. The real Yogins of India maintain that they as Spirits 
can be fully conscious, even when the body lies quite asleep, 
by dissociating themselves in thought and feeling from the 

2 See infra; and also Hindu flealism p. 124, 


Leaving these questions for the present then, what 
we have to grasp here is that, according to the Trika, 
in order that a Purusha may wake up from his sleep 
of the Purusha-Prakriti state, his Prakriti has to be 
disturbed by an influence other than that of either the 
Purusha himself, who has already completely identified 
himself with the Prakriti and has indeed forgotten 
himself, or of the Prakriti itself which#is inert. l 

As the Purusha wakes up, this his first waking conci- 
oijsness after the sleep in or of the Prakriti — the conscious- 
ness, which is hardly anything more than a feeling of 
the merest presentation, 2 without anything of the 
nature of a moving feeling in it — is what is called 

And as the first manifestation of that type of consci- 
ous experience which follows a state of sleep, it is and can 
be, at this stage and in so far as it is the product of 
the experiences of the higher states af manifestation, 
only the memory of the experience of the state which 
preceded the state of sleep [the meaning of the qualifi- 
cation made here will be understood later]. Buddhi is, in 
other words, what may bo called the memory of the 
Universal 'All-this' which formed the Experience of 
the Shuddha-Vidya but afterwards changed into a dim and 
indefinite 'Something in the Purusha-Prakriti stage. It 
is therefore the blossoming forth anew of that indefinite 
'Something i. e. of Prakriti. 

wvgm^sm 1— sfr first si^raftss s«i«iyt spiers 1 sr ^ «hr« jt^cp 
ci^wrifaaffii^sr 1 s?*r*n Ptto 3^ jtRt t fa«r^ 1 Tantrasara, Ahm. 8, 

2 toi*tw^$ see below. Comp, also smmft *r$fcr wmfai Yoga- 

Bhasbya on ii. 19. See also the Varttika on it. 


As such, it is a state of calm but keenly conscious 
enjoyment, without as yet the manifestation of anything 
of the nature of either a moving Passion or inert, senseless 
Stupefaction. It is therefore the manifestation of the 
Sattva aspect of Prakriti as its most dominant Feature 
or Guna. Because a disturbance of the Prakriti, by 
which disturbance alone the new experience of Buddhi is 
produced, can mean<uothing eke than (a) that the equipoise 
in which the three Gunas had hitherto been held, and 
which alone is the sole being and essence of the Prakriti, 
has been destroyed ; ( b ) that one or other of the three 
Gunas which had been hitherto held in a state of mutual 
neutralisation has been thrown into greater prominence 
than the others ; and (c) that it is this prominent Feature 
thus produced which affects the Experiencer in a way 
which is other than the merely indefinite vague feeling 
of the Purusha-Prakriti State. That is to say, Buddhi is 
the 'affection' of the Purusha, as the blissful but unmoving 
feeling of mere presentation (prakasha only), by the 
Prakriti in that Affective Feature ( Guna ) of hers which 
can so affect ( L e. in her aspect as the Sattva Guna ), and 
which becomes, at the time, more prominent than her 
other two Features or aspects, both of which are also 
present therein but held in comparative suppression. l 

And as the Buddhi, being such a manifestation of 
the Sattva Guna, is a glorious vision of ideas, ( Dhi ) 
i. e. the memory of the ' All-this ' at this stage, it is 
a state of pure knowledge or Intelligence in which the 

1, This is a point which should be carefully borne in 
mind if one is to understand properly the teachings of tho 
Trika and of the Sankhya. When they speak of any one Guna 
being more prominent than the others in a particular manifes- 
tation, they do not mean that the others are altogether absent 
from or entirely wanting in that manifestation, but that they 
are there though only in a comparatively subdued condition. 
See also below. 


feeling is one of bliss no doubt, but without anything 
of a inoving, reacting or passional nature in it. Thus 
the Sattva is — as has been intimated above and as may be 
now pointed out in passing, — the originator of both calm 
pleasure and enjoyment ( rather of a blissful feeling ) and 
also an exalted state of Consciousness in us. Indeed it 
is the latter which is the real character of an affection 
by the Sattva, the feeling of bliss beit^g but a concomitant 
result of it. 1 

Further, as this experience of the Buddhi is one in 
which there is only the notion of a mere existence — of 
only the fact that certain things or ideas are 2 — without 
any thought of an ' I ' on the part of the Experiencer 
or any movement of a passion, it is said to be an experience 
of Beivg only ( SattfvMatra, ) : a fact which may 
account for the tfame of its ^hief Affective Feature, 
namely the Sattva, which literally means Existence, i. e. 
mere being or mere presentation. 

So far we have considered Buddhi as the product 
of only the factors which come into manifestation, in the 
evolution of the Universe, prior to the individual having 
any experiences of the concrete sense objects. But Buddhi 
has other contents as well, which are derived from the 
later experiences of the individual. These are called the 
Samskaras — the refined and, as it were, the distilled 
essences abstracted out of the concrete experiences of 
one's daily life. 3 These will be considered later. For 

1. SfRFrft H^cT^rr wW'fta^ wvn gf^-. \ Tattva-Sandoha 15. 
g^ St^ 5T£Rt^r^iT^!3Jt ^ ^^h i Tanlral^ Aim. 9. 

2. Satta-rnatra. 

3. cmmfo^m^rR^crr^ i Sahlh. Sii., II. 42, See also 
Vijfiana on it. I have fully explained in Hindu Realism how 
Samskaras are produced. Hqq JHiidu Realism, pp. 103 — 10G. 

The Buddhists call Samskaras, or, as in Pali, Saiikharas, 
also by the name of sesa-chetasika which is very significant, 
as it literally raeana the lust remnants or final results of 
mental operation. 


the present it is enough for our purpose to know ( a ) 
that 'Buddhi' is what may be spoken of as the memory of 
the Shuddha-Vidya Experience produced by the re- 
vivification of the dim and indefinite 'Something of the 
Prakriti to which that experience had been once reduced; 
( b ) that it consists of General and Abstract ideas which 
as such cannot be pictured by the individual mind of a 
man in the same way as can a concrete thing, a parti- 
cular cow for instance, or a concrete act, a particular act 
of kindness for example; ( c ) that, remaining in the 
background of or beyond the personal consciousness 
of a man, as Rama or Jones, it acts as that standard a 
reference to which is needed before one can ascertain the 
nature of a concrete object of experience as belonging 
to one 'Species' or another and can form a judgment about 
it ; and ( d ) that, finally, it is an experience of calm joy 
and pure Consciousness, of mere presentation as such, in 
which one is quite oblivious of the limited Individual 
Self as the T of the Experience, and in which there is as 
yet normoving feeling. 

And it is produced from the Prakriti, as said above, 
in much the same way as, and for a similar reason to that 
which, brings on, in our daily life, a state of wakefulness, 
following upon a state of deep and profound sleep. 

From Buddhi is produced the above mentioned 

Its manifestation from the Buddhi, i. e. its realisa- 
tion as an Experience after that of the Buddhi, may 
again be likened to the stage immediately following that 
self-oblivious Consciousness which we sometimes have on 
waking up from a state of sleep, which corresponds 
in some respects, as we have seen, to the experience of 
the Buddhi. And it comes to be realised in much the 
same way and for similar reasons. On waking up — in 
the sort of case we have taken for our example — first 


this stage, consist only of such general elements or 
aspects of the already experienced Buddhi as are parti- 
cularised for the purpose. And this particularisation 
takes place in obedience to the same or a similar law 
which we find in operation in our every day life. It is a 
process, as will be readily seen, of selecting a special 
section out of a general whole and then being 'engaged' 
on it so as to make it ones own either as a part- 
icular object of thought or a particular field of operation. 
It is, in short, a process of selection and of making what 
is so selected one's own, as ( my and mine' or of building 
it into one-self as the T, — as for instance, when the body, 
consisting of materials particularised from a general 
whole, and built into one's self, is regarded as the T of 

a man, 

* • 

Following this process, a special section or aspect of 
the Buddhi is selected and is regarded by the experienc- 
ing entity as particularly its own and there arises the 
experience 'this is mine or these are mine', 'I am this or 
'I am so and so' — there is, in other words, the experience, 
of what may be called self-apperception. 

This realisation of one-self as the T and as the self 
and owner of a ^larticular this* as distinguished from 
the c All- this', is what is meant by the production of the 

And Ahankara thus produced consists, — at this stage, 
let me repeat, and in so far as its elements arc personal 
ones, — of a particularised aspect or aspects of the general 
Buddhi, and constitutes the 'particular this' or the 'so 
and so' of the experience. In other words, it is, at this 
stage, only the notion of a mere some body, a limited 
mere ' / am' (asmita-nmtra) 1 both as a 'being and 'posses- 
sor', and not I am 'Rama or 'Jones' (na tu Chaitro Maitro 

1. Yoga Bhdshya ii. 19 with the Vdrttika on it. 


va ham asmlti). The difference which there is between the 
Ahankara thus constituted and the Buddhi consists in the 
fact that, while the former is the experience "I am all this 
and all this is mine', the latter is simply the experience 
"all this is\ without as yet the realisation of an T or 
'mine' in reference to it. 

Further, as Ahankara exists by making its own 
certain selected and specialised elements either as a 
possession or as itself, it is essentially a thing of which 
the function is what may be called 'appropriation' or * self- 
arrogation' or identification — in Sanskrit, Abhimana — by 
engaging itself in, or intently fixing the thought on, what 
is so selected ( Abhi, on, about and Man, to think or feel ). 
Indeed, Ahankara may be said to be only this power or 
energy of 'self-arrogation' — of building up materials into 
an 'Ego'; and, being a power, it is a product, ultimately, 
of Shakti through the intermediate Prakriti which obvi- 
ously is a mode of the Divine Euergy. 1 

Finally, Ahankara is what may be called a static 
condition, to a certain extent at least, of the individual 
existence, inasmuch as there is as yet very little movement 
in it. lb is the State or Experience of Self-realisation as 
the personal Ego, just preceding the state of movement, in 
much the same way as the state of Self-recollection, 
following the Self-oblivious consciousness of the first 
waking up from sleep of our illustration, is a state of 
comparative motionleesness preceding movements which 

1, It is this Ahankara which, according to the teaching 
of the Buddha also (as represented in the Pali Pitakas), 
holds together the ingredients of Nama-Rupa making up an 
individual being. See, for instance, the story of the Bhikshu 
Upasena, as given in the Samyutta Nikaya ( xxxv. 69, Pali 
Text Soc. edition ) wherein we are told how Upasena's body 
was scattered because there was no Ahankara up-holding it* 


are to follow directly. It is a state of experience of what 
may be called a mental stock-taking on the part of the 
now limited experiencer, viewing round and realising, as 
it were, what he is and what he can do; and as such it may 
be said to correspond to the Sada-shiva state of the Pure 
Way, mentioned before. 1 It is a state of forming resolves 
as to what to do, by a survey and realisation of what one 
is and is capable ot doing — by feeling oneself as a some- 
body with a will to do. It is thus a state in which, as* in 
the Sada-Shiva-Tattva, the will aspect of the Divine 
Shakti is most manifest. But it is also a state in which, 
as said above, the Experiencer identifies himself with the 
'so and so' of the experience. And as this identification 
means — unlike the Sada-shiva state where there is as yet 
no all this or some this — some movement of thought and 
feeling, as it were, towards and all round the 'so and so', 
it is a state in which there is already manifest, to some 
extent at least, also that Affective Feature of the Prakriti 
whicl? can affect the experiencer as such amoving feeling, 
i. e. the Rajas Guna which was more or less suppressed 
in the previous Buddhic State. That is to say, Ahankara 
is an experience in which the will aspect of the Divine 
Shakti and the Rajas Guna of the Prakriti are the more 
dominant elements. 2 

But, although Ahankara is an experience in which 

the Rajas is in more prominent manifestation, it contains 

, c , * 

1. Ante p. 74. 

2. ^n*r rrfta^fffaTT^^Tfa^ i Tatlva-Sandoha, 14. 

Rajas is that Affective Feature of the Prakriti which 
affects primarily as a moving feeling, or as some form of 
activity. Its affection is * painful ' only in a secondary sense, 
just as the blissful effect of Sattva, which affects primarily as 
Prakasha — 'revelation' or 'light 1 , i. e. mere presentation — is 
only secondary. Compare — 

5^ w ftwrwwn* farar fir aecasiw* I Tantral^ Ahn. 9. 


in it the other two Gunas as well, only in a subdued and 
suppressed form, in the same way as there are theTamas 
and Rajas in theBuddhi, even though Sattvamay be most 
prominently manifest in it. Indeed Prakriti, being but 
the Gunas in a state of equipoise, all its derivatives, such 
as the Buddhi, Ahankara and the others to be mention- 
ed later, cannot but have in them all the three Gunas, 
even though it is only one of them which is prominently 
maftifest at a time while the remaining two subsist in a 
subdued form. This is a point which should never be lost 
sight of, if one is to understand the Trika, or the 
Sankhya, doctrines in regard to these later phases of 

From Ahankara again is produced the above men- 
tioned Manas. 

From what has been already said about Manas, it will 
be seen that it is a state of activity — it being busily engag- 
ed in building up images, as fast as the senses supply the 
manifold of the external universe. But this is not its only 
function. It has many activities besides. For it is also that 
something in us which constantly moves from sense to 
sense, as what is called attention, and co-operates with 
the senses before the latter can 'give' us anything at all. 
There may be the whole world before us and the senses 
in contact with and acted on by the different stimulating 
features of that world, yet they may not produce any 
'sensation 1 whatever, if what is ordinarily called 'mind* is 
absent from them — if one is, as it is put 'absent- 
minded/ The senses, therefore, must receive the co-opera- 
tion of this something vaguely called mind before they 
can at all act. Nor can this 'mind' be any other than 
what builds up images out of the 'given' of the sense; 
that is to say, it is none other than the Manas ; because 
Manas is the factor which comes into operation immedi- 
ately after the manifold of sense is given, all other 
elements necessary for the perception of a 'thing' as a 


cow or a horse, being supplied afterwards. First the 
picture is built and then it is substantiated with and 
assimilated to the other necessary materials of previous 
personal experiences held together in and as the personal 
T or Aliankara, and compared with the general ideas of 
the Buddhi — and indeed gone through several other opera- 
tions in the other and deeper factors of our mature as 
will be seen latei*. And if any 'instrument' has to co- 
operate with the senses before they can at all give us 
anything, it must bo this picture-making instrument, that 
is to say, the Manas; because Manas as it were lies next 
to the senses and intervenes, so to say, between the senses 
on the one hand and the Aharikara on the other, with the 
Buddhi lying beyond it still, as can be inferred from the 
successive operations of these. Nor need we suppose that 
the something which obviously does and must co-operate 
with the senses and which is referred to vaguely as 'mind' 
or 'attention', is other than the image-making and concre- 
ting Manas, lying, as it were, between this latter on 
the one hand and the senses on the other. There is no 
ground for such a supposition. For not only are we never 
conscious of the existence of such a thing, but it is far 
simpler and far more natural to suppose that what co- 
operates on the one hand severally with the senses, — thus 
receiving from them all the manifold elements they can sup- 
ply — and, on the other, gathers them together and builds 
them up into the concrete images of perception, should be 
one and the same thing. 

Manas is, in this sense also, 1 a concreting and 
synthesising factor. Not only does it put together the 
' manifold' supplied by a single sense as so many points or 
'pin-pricks' and build them up into an imago, but it 
also 'puts together* and concretes the various sets of 
maifolds supplied by the different senses and makes of 
hem a single concrete image. 

1 See ante p. 95. 

115 • 

Thus it is, that Manas is intensely active and rest- 
less 1 as it moves constantly, on the one hand from sense 
to sense, and on the other from the senses to the Ahankara 
to which it 'hands over* the sense-manifold after it 
has been transformed into images to be presently en- 
dowed with other elements by the Ahankara itself from 
its own store-house. 

Manas is, in other words, a state of activity — a 
Kiyietic State — following that of the comparatively 
Static Ahankara. 

And it follows the Ahankara in much the same 
way — and for more or less the same reasons — as the 
state of Self-recollection, L e , the second state on waking 
from sleep in our example, is followed by that of activity 
when a man begins .to move or n^ove about. 

The mutual relation of the three States of Buddhi, 
Ahankara and Manas may not inaptly be illustrated, at 
least in certain of their aspects, by the behaviour of a 
cat or a tiger when catching prey. 

Let us suppose that our tiger was sleeping. Then 
suddenly he is waked up by the movements of some animal 
he can devour; and he is all awake, only eyeing his prey 
and without any thought of himself. This may be likened 
to Buddhi. 

Then he makes a resolve to kill the animal and 
gathers himself up and assumes a # crouching position — 
a motionless state of Selfaossession, but one which is 
going immediately to be followed by one of activity. 
This is not unlike Ahankara. 

The next moment, he takes a tremendous leap and 
is immediately on his prey, and there is a great struggle 

1. See below, p. 117, notes; 1,2 also compare: 
*r*# fit ftf-> £w Jwrfa *r^ w* i 

Bhag, Gita % vi. Si 


and fierco activity. This is not quite a bad picture of the 

This illustration would be still more complete if we 
could suppose that our tiger remained simultaneously 
in the three positions — existing simultaneously as three 
tigers, the last as the outcome of the second and this 
of the first. For, >ve must not forget that when Manas 
is produced from Ahankara and the latter from Buddhi, 
neither this nor the Ahankara ceases to exist, but on the 
contrary they remain what they have always been, even 
after their respective products have come into existence. 

But although so active, Manas is not an experience 
in which the Rajas, — the Affective Feature of the Prakriti, 
affecting primarily as % moving fueling ( moving the 
experiencer into activity of some sort ) — is most mani- 
fest. For the activities of Manas by themselves produce 
neither any intelligent and illuminating results, nor any 
movirtg feeling of pleasure and pain. The images which the 
Manas builds up by its activity are by themselves never of 
an illuminating nature; i. e. they do not and cannot reveal 
themselves independently to the experiencer. Before they 
can be so revealed and realised as objects of perception, 
they will have to be taken up, as we have seen, not only 
to the Ahankara but also to the Buddhi without whose 
intelligent light they would be but dark forms, unseen 
and unknown by the Experiencer, and the efforts of the 
Manas but blind and 'stupid' gropings in the dark. 1 Nor 
can the images built up by the Manas affect, of themselves, 
the experiencer so as to move him in any way until and 
unless the experiencer identifies himself with them by 
Ahankara, i. e> by making them his own in feeling and 
experience. The Manas by itself, being thus an experi- 

1. Compare the famous saying of Kant that perceptions 
( anschauun# ) without conceptions are blind. 


ence of activity in the dark, unseen and unrevealed by 
the light of Buddhi, and not moving the expcriencer till 
he identifies himself with it in feeling, is one in which 
the Tamas Guna is the most manifest. 1 

But, although blind and moving and working in the 
dark, still Manas is an experience of groping, of seeking^ 
however unintelligent ly. It is therefore the seat of 
'desires'. Indeed Manas is 'desire incarnate. 2 

And, as said above, this manas comes into manifesta- 
tion from the Ahankara. 

V-VIL The Means and General Principles 
of Sensible Experience. 

17-13. The five senses, five Powers of Action 
and five General objects of sense perception. 

But Manas is not the only product of Ahankara. Two 
other classes or groups of factors are also produced from 
it, viz : — 

a. The decad of Indriyas or powers, mentioned 
above. ( pp. 43-49 ), consisting of the quintad 
of the Powers or capacities of sense perception 
and the quintad of the powers of action; 3 and 

1. aST farar wfore^ffrfa s 1 ^ fa3^ftft \ Tatlva Sandoha. 15. 
Tamas is the Feature which 'affects as the want of 

Prakasha, or of light of consciousness, as the Sattva does as 
Prakasha. Compare — 

*?t^mt ?vn& srer^U^nfoTa: i T antral. Aim. 9. 

2. q^r srrfcm ftfa^cr^r *refa m *Rt i Mahabhar 

3. According to the Buddha also the Indriyas are the 
outcome of Ahankara. Comp. a^sftfcT ^ ^^ faTO% arfaT^ 3T$T wsp* 
f H^^ *WffPa 5tfcT I Sarhyutla Nik XXII. 47. 5., P. T t S. 


b. The quintad of general objects of the special 
senses ( also mentioned above pp. 48-49 ) or 
the primary elements of the sense-manifold, 
i e. t the Tanmatras, as they are technically 
called in Sanskrit. 

Before considering how these are produced from the 
Aharikara, let us clearly understand what the first group, 

i, e. the Indriyas, really are. 1 


By Indriyas, the Shaiva Philosopher means not 
merely the physical organs of hearing, feeling-by- touch, see- 
ing, tasting and smelling, and the so-called muscular sense 
and the bodily organs of action, but also those powers 
or faculties of the Puruslia — rather the Purusha as 
endowed with and manifesting these faculties and powers 
— which show themselves as operating through or by 
these physical organs. While they may therefore bo 
spoken of as 'senses' and organs, we must, in speaking of 
them thus, bear this distinction carefully in mind. 

The Indriyas are divided primarily into two classes 
which may be spoken of, in reference only to their physical 
manifestations but not as they are in themselves, as the 
sensory and motor nervous systems — in Sanskrit, the 
Buddlrindriyas or Jnancndriyas, the powers of mere 
"perception or the senses; and Karmcndriyas, the powers of 

The former, i. e. the Jnanendriyas or senses proper, 
are five, namely : 

the Power of hearing 

do of feeling- by-touch (in which both the 
temperature and the contact or 
tactile senses are included. For 
reasons for this, as well as for the 

1. For references to the original texts on the whole of 
this section on the Indriyas or Powers see Appendix VIII. 


real notion of the Hindu philosop- 
hers, who knew this distinction well, 
in regard to these two senses now 
recognised by Western psychologists 
as quito distinct from one another, 
see Appendix IX ). 

tho Power of seeing 
do of tasting 
and do of smelling: 


The Karmendriyas or Powers of action are also five, 
namely : 

Tho Power of expression such as speaking 
do of grasping or handling 
do of locomotiort 

do of excretion (voiding, spitting, expec- 
torating &c. ) 

do of sexual action, ( comprising all 
sexual activity, i. e. all activity 
which a person of one sex is moved 
to, or does, perform towards another 
person of the opposite sex, and 
which, when so performed, results 
in overwhelming restfulness and of 
which the real motive, i. e. moving 
Force or power, is this desire for 
this particular kind of restfulness.) 

In tho physical body these five Powers of action 
happen ( of course for adequate reasons which need not, 
however, be entered into here) to be represented respec- 
tively by the vocal organ, hands, feet, anus ( for void- 
ing only ) and the sex organ ; but it should be clearly 
borne in mind that these are not the five powers of action 
themselves. These physical limbs and organs are no 
doubt ordinarily the means whereby the operation of the 


active powers are carried on. Indeed, they have been 
evolved for the purpose by the Purusha desiring to act in 
these five ways. But if any of these may happen to be 
disabled, the power of action, for which it served as an 
outward means, may still find some other way of accompl- 
ishing its task. If, for instance, the feet are disabled, as 
they may in the case of a cripple, the power of locomo- 
tion, which is a superphysical power, may find an outward 
means in the hands with the help of which a man may 
bo moving about — not so efficiently certainly as with 
the feet, which have been evolved specially for the 
purpose through ages of practice, still effectively enough 
within limits. 

Similarly, while the five physical organs of the ear, 
skin, eye, nose and palace represent^ and serve as the 
outward means of operation for, the five senses of percep- 
tion, the latter are not only not identical with them but 
are not even absolutely dependent on them. In India 
it has been always recognized that there are certain 
ways, known to the Yogins, whereby they can accomplish 
all that can be done by means of these physical organs 
without the use of the latter. In the West too, it 
is not unknown to hypnotists that the hypnotised subject 
can perceive things — specially can smell and taste — even 
when no use of the special physical organs ordinarily 
necessary for the purpose is made. 

Now these Powers of the Spirit — five powers of 
perception differentiated from a general power of mere 
awareness ( i. e. vidya, see Appendix IX ) and five of 
action, i. e. the ten Indriyas— come into manifestation, 
as said above, from the Aharikara and they do so 
simultaneously with the Manas. The way they are pro- 
duced is as follows : — 

We have seen that the Manas is the seat of desires, 
or rather Manas is the Purusha when it has reached that 


state of manifestation in which it is endowed with or has 
developed desires. Now these desires are always either 
to perceive in one or other of the five ways of perception; 

to hoar, 

to feel-by-touch ( heat or cold, smooth- 
ness or ronghnqps and so on ), 
• to see, 

to taste, 
and to smell ; 
or, to act in one or other of the five ways of action viz: 

to express ( to speak ) 
to handle ( to grasp or hold ) 
to move about 

to excrete ( to void, expectorate and 
so on ) 

and to act being prompted by a sensual 
impulse with a view to and to remain 
still when so enjoining what is 
' loved ' and is felt as one's own self. 
( svarupa-vishnlnti ) 

In other words desire, as represented by Manas, can 
never exist by itself. It is desire either to perceive or to act 
And therefore the moment there arises such a desire in the 
Purusha when it has reached the Ahankara Stage, and 
therewith Manas is produced, that very moment the powers, 
i. e. the Indriyas, to perceive or to act are also evolved. 
And as the desire, i e. Manas, arises, and can arise, 
only in these ten forms — five for perception and five for 
action — the ten Indriyas are also produced, simultaneous- 
ly with the Manas as Desire, in their tenfold forms. 

Not only this. The moment the five Indriyas of 
perception are produced, what are called the iive 
Tanxnatras, that is to say, the five primary elements of 


perception mentioned above, also come into manifesta- 
tion from the same Ahankara. 1 Because the Indriyas 
can have really no meaning, and really no existence, 
■whatever without the objects with which they are 
inseparably correlated. The Indriya of hearing has, 
for instauce, no meaning without something to hear, — 
that is, some sound. Similarly, the Indriya of fecling- 
by-touch, seeing, tasting and smelling have no mean- 
ing without a simultaneous reference to some thing to 
foel-by-touch, something to see, taste and smell Therefore 
the moment the Manas arises as desire, the Ahaiikara 
takes a triple form, as for instance, 

12 3 

I desire to-see some-colour. 

In this experience the T is the Ahankara in the back- 
ground; and the three forms of its manifestation are the 
'Desire* which is Manas, the Seeing which is the Indriya, 
( in this case of vision ) and the Notion of some colour 
which js the object of perception. That the Manas as 
desire and the sense of sight as a power of thePurusha are 
the modifications of the Ahankara will be readily seen. 
The object also— the notion of some colour — can be 
nothing else but only a form of the Ahankara realised as 
a thing projected outside, as there is no other source from 
which it can come to the Ahankara, and as it is its own 
perception : for anything that is any body's own is really 
a part of his own Self as a person, i. e. of his Ahankara. 
In later experience such a thing can, in a certain sense, 
be 'given' from outside first and then woven into the 
Ahankara and made its own. But at the stage we are now 
considering there is no such experience possible; and 
therefore this 'perception 1 which is the 'own' thing on 
the part of a particular Ahankara can be evolved only 
from itself. 

1, For references to texts on the Tamnatras, see Appen- 
ds X. 


Thus it happens that with the manifestation of the 
five Indriyas of perception there are also evolved, from 
the Ahaiikara, the corresponding objects of perception. 

But these objects at this stage can be, every one of 
them, only of a most general character, that is to say, they 
can be only the general mental conceptions of 

Sound-as-such, as distinguished from particular 
• forms of sound i. e. sounds of various pitch, 

tone and so on ; 

Feel-as-such, as distinguished from the varying forms 
of it, experienced as cold, warmth and heat, 
hardness, softness and the like; 

Colour-as-such, as distinguished from particular 
forms, varieties of shades of colour, — red, green, 
blue and so on ; 

Flavour-as-such,as distinguished from particular forms 
of flavour, — sweet, bitter, sour and so on ; and 

Odour-as-such, as distinguished from particular forms 
of odour — fragrant, foul and so on ; 

because, in the first place, there is as yet no reason 
why there should be a perception, even a mental percep- 
tion, of any one particular form or shade, rather than 
another, of any of these sense objects. Such particulars 
are perceived only when, at a later stage with the ex- 
perience of a physical world, we have these particulars 
as the 'given' of the experience, so far as these are suppli- 
ed by these purely special senses of hearing, fecling-by- 
touch, seeing, tasting and smelling. And the very fact that 
we can ever form the general ideas of these sense-objects, 
i. e. of sound, temperature, colour, flavour and odour as 
such, as distinguished from the particulars of these, shows 
that these must already exist somewhere in some part 
or aspect of our nature as facts of experience; and remain- 
ing there serve as a standard, reference to which alone 


can enable us to talk of the particulars in purely general 
terms 1 . If the general notions of the particulars of each 
sense object were not present in our minds, there Avould 
be no chance of our forming these from the particulars 
'given' by the senses as the physical facts of experience — 
the particulars being all that we thus get — for that 
would really mean the very impossible task of building 
up something which, we have never known, the creation 
of a thing which is totally different in kind from what 
we have already experienced in some shape or other 
either in parts or as a whole. And surely we never 
experience in the physical world, by means of the senses 
as represented in the body, any such thing as colour in 
general or colour-as-such, sound-as-such, and so on. These, 
therefore, must already be experienced in some other state, 
before the particulars of physical experience can ever 
be referred to in general terms. 

And they are experienced at the stage we are now 
considering, when they are produced from the Aharikara, 
as mer6 general notions of somethings heard, seen and 
so on, because — and this is the second reason — these 
general notions of the particulars of the special senses 
only cannot belong to the generals of the Buddhi, which 
contains the general ideas not only of these special sense 
particulars but of all things particular. The general of a 
special sense is no doubt general in regard to the particu- 
lars of that sense only ; but it is itself only a particular in 
regard to what constitutes the contents of the Buddhi — 
it being but a particular aspect or facet out of a number 
of aspects which make up a thing, as the latter must 
necessarily have other aspects as well. The general 
notion of the ' cow \ that is, cow as a species, is not 
merely the notion of colour-as-such or sound-as-such but 

1 For a consideration, from the Hindu point of view, of 
this doctrine of the previous existence or pre-suppositions of 
these 'generals' see Appendix VII. 


a something which possesses both colour as-such, and 
sound-as-such, besides many other attributes all no doubt 
of a general character ; for a particular cow is a thing 
which has particular colours, sound of a particular sort 
and also other attributes of which each is only a parti- 
cular form of a general type. The notion of the cow, 
therefore, as a species, is a general notion in which the 
generals of colours, sounds and the res* are still further 
generalised into what has these even as so many 

Thus the general of the particulars of a special 
sense is only a particular in regard to the general of the 
Buddhi and is thus different from the latter. 

And ib is only these generals of the sense-particulars 
which come into manifestation when the pure ' I am ' of 
the Ahailkara experiences itself as a being desiring to 
hear, to feel-by-touch, to see, taste or smell something, as 
they alone can be the objects of the perception now desired, 
they being specialised from the generals of the Budcflii by 
means of, or through, the intermediate experience of self- 
realisation, as ' I ', that is, as the Aharikara. 

And they come into manifestation simultaneously 
with the Buddhindriyas as the inevitable second term of 
the indissoluble relation which subsists between the senses 
and their objects. 

These general notions of the particulars, which latter 
alone are ' given ' by the five special senses as represented 
in the body, are called the Tanmatras i. e. the general ele- 
ments of the particulars of sense perception; ( lit. That 
only ). These Tanmatras, therefore, are, as said above, 
the following : 

1. Sound-as-such ( Shabda-Tanmatra ), 

2. Feel-as-such ( Sparsha-Tannmtra), 

3. Colour-as-such ( Riipa-Tanmatra), 

4. Flavour-as-such ( Rasa-Tanmatra ), 


and 5. Odour-as-such ( Gandha-Tanmatra ). 

And as they thus come into manifestation, there are 
also produced at the same time — from the same Ahankara, 
but as the results of the reaction of these — the Karmen- 
driyas mentioned above. How they are thus produced 
may be shown as follows : — 

There is a tendency in us that, when we hear somo 
one speak, we often want to respond and speak back. 
This instinct is seen very strongly preserved in certain 
lower animals: in jackals, for instance, so that when a 
jackal hears another cry out, he also instinctively responds 
and howls back. There are some birds also which pos- 
sess this instinct in a marked degree; so much so that 
fowlers in certain parts of India take advantage of it, 
and find out the whereabouts of "such birds by either 
making a tamed bird of the species utter a cry or by 
cleverly imitating themselves the cry of the bird. The 
mon^ent this is done, all birds of the species in the neigh- 
bourhood begin to respond at once and the fowlers spot 
them exactly. 1 

Following this tendency, when, with the evolution 
of the power of hearing, sound-as-such i3 realised, there 
is also the realisation, on the part of the spirit ( as it 
now at this stage is L e. the Purusha with these powers 
only but still without a body) of the power to respond; — 
it desires to respond ,i. e. to speak out in response to the 
sound heard, and therewith the power to respond that is 
to express (the Vag-indriya) is evolved. 

Then, we find that if anything tickles us or we feel 
too hot or too cold in any imrtoi the body we instinc- 
tively put our hand to that pait — there is an instinctivo 

1 I have known a clever ventriloquist to make wild 
Indian cuckoos ( kokila) respond m this fashion. 


desire to handle that part, rather, to handle what so 
tickles us or makes us feel thus hot or cold. 

Following this instinct, when the Sparsha-tanmatra 
is realised, i. e. the sensation of Feel-as-such is produced, 
there arises also the desire to handle what so produced 
the sensation and therewith the power to handle, i e., 
the Ilastcndriya comes into existence. * 

Similarly, when we see a thing suddenly bursting 
into view, there is an instinctive tendency in us to move 
or run aw T ay from, or, as in some cases, towards, it. No 
doubt it is now greatly checked in us by ages of training 
and education. But it can be seen strongly present in 
lower animals. And following this instinct, when, with 
the evolution of the power of Vision (or Darshanendriya), 
the colour-as-such or Kupa-Tanmatra is realised, the 
power to move aivay from or towards it, i. e. } the power 
of locomotion, the Pfidendriya, is developed. 

Again, when a thing is suddenly put into our mouth 
the first and instinctive tendency is, not to see how we 
may like its taste, but to throw it out or eject it. A similar 
tendency gives rise to the power to discard from our 
system, which at the stage we are considering is still 
without a physical body, the moment the sensation of 
Flavour-as- such is experienced with the evolution of the 
sense of taste. 

Finally, the experience of Odoar-as-such gives rise 
to what is activity really in a negative sense. For it is 
an act of enjoyment and therefore restfulness, and no 
mo vement such as activity generally implies. Audit comes 
about in much the same way as when, with all the other 
senses closed and inactive (as the situation at the super- 
physical stage of manifestation we are considering must 
be regarded to be ) we are made to smell some odour 
which is more or less of an indifferent character and 
to which odour-as-such may, to a certain extent, be 


compared. Such an experience leads neither to an 
activity of responding as when hearing a sound, nor of 
handling, locomotion, nor throwing out and rejecting. If 
anything, it puts one to rest and sleep in a state of 
passive enjoyment. 

Thus corresponding with the five special senses or 
Jnanendriyas and'as their reactions on the Purusha there 
are produced the five powers or capacities to act, i. e n the 
five Karmendriyas, which are : 

1. The power to respond by making sounds or 
speaking — the Vagindriya 

2. The power of handling — the Hastendriya 

3. The power of moving away from and to- 
wards, i, e. y of locomotion — the padendriya 

4. The power of discarding or throwing out— 
the payvindriya 

and 5. The power of being passively restful and 
enjoying something by which one is at the 
same time overcome and prevented from 
moving, and being united with which one 
feels as though one has realised one's self — 
one's very heart's desire and does not want to 
move out, as when uniting sexually, i. e. 
embracing or otherwise ; — the Upasthendriya, 

From Ahankara, then, there really evolves a three- 
fold production, viz: 

1. Manas and the Jnanendriyas. ( Mind and 
senses ) 

2. The Karmendriyas ( Powers of action ) 

and 3. The general objects of the Jnanendriyas i. e. 
the Tanmatras. 

They are however not to be regarded as things exist- 
ing independently by themselves, but as the endowments 


of the Purusha which, at this stage, is Ahankara together 
with, or enveloped in, these, as well as the Ahankara in 
itself as such, the Buddhi behind it and all the rest, stand- 
ing, as it were in the far back-ground. The individual 
as thus endowed may be termed the ' Soul \ 

VIII. The Principles of Materiality. 
32-36. The Five BhStas. 

This stage reached, the Purusha or as we may now call 
it, the Soul, is nearly ready for its round of existence 
and experiences as a full Hedged individual. There 
remains but one more step to take to accomplish this fully. 
This last step may be spoken of as the Materialisation 
of the Soul i. e. of the Purusha witli its endowments. 

And it happens in the following way : — l 

In the last stage the objects of experience were, 
as we have seen, of a general character — sound-, feel-, 
colour-, flavour- and odour-as-such without the perception 
of any variations in any of them. But however much 
these may be perceived as objects of the senses in the 
beginning, i. c, when they are first produced, they 
gradually cease to be the objects of such perception in 
obedience to the same principle which makes the Experi- 
encer lose sight of the 'All-this' of the Shuddha-Vidya 
state, or of the Generals cf the Buddhi at a later stage of 
manifestation: the same principle which we find in opera- 
tion also in daily life, ultimately due to Maya, the 'Self- 
hiding' aspect of the Divine Shakti. We find in our 
daily experience that if we are face to face with a merely 
homogenous something without any variation in it, we 
gradually lose sight of it as such a thing — unless we are 
endowed with, or have already developed in us, that 

1 For the original texts bearing on this section see 
Appendix XI 


Tidy a Shakti 1 of the Yogin which, being the opposite of 
Maya, can remain fully alive to it and can keep holding 
it before him as a vivid and clear object of experience. 
We find that when placed in such a situation, our minds 
eagerly seek a change in it — a variation or variations in 
the object of experience — or we fall asleep, which how- 
ever leads to the same result, inasmuch as sleep itself 
means a change in <&he experience to be followed by a still 
further one when we wake up. Following this principle 
then, when the Soul is face to face with the mere sound- 
as-such for a time, ifc ceases to notice it at all, however 
much the Soul may have been affected thereby when it 
first arose as an object of experience, in exactly the same 
way as sound would cease to be perceived consciously if 
any of us now found himself drowned in an absolutely 
homogeneous sea of sound from all directions without any 
variation whatsoever. Such a volume of sound would 
certainly be perceived as such by him when it first burst 
out; but after a while his ears would get accustomed to it 
and fce would either not notice it — it growing into a 
normal sorrounding — or he would fall asleep, only to 
wake up to perceive a change. Or, it may happen — as it 
certainly does aud must happen at the stage of evolution 
we are considering, there being at that stage no reason 
why the soul should fall asleep — that the Soul already 
having an experience of sound and now not noticing it 
any longer, eagerly seeks to hear it again. But it can do 
so only by conceiving variations in it: such a conception 
on its part of a variation or variations being possible 
because there is contained in the general conception all the 
elements of the particulars, in much the same way as the 
Colour rays are already contained in the white light of 
the Sun; or, for the matter of that, the whole of the 
Universal Variety is contained in the single experience 
of Parama Shiva. 

1 Viclya Shakti enables one to overcome the effect of 
Maya, acting in opposition to Maya; see Ish. Prat., III. i. 7. 


Thus it is that from the general perception of the 
sound-as-such there arises the perception of the sound- 

Similarly from the perception of Feel-, Colour., 
Flavour- and Odour-as-such there also arise the perceptions 
of the several particulars or varieties of these. 

Not only this. Along with tlte manifestation of 
varieties in the generals of these sense-objects, there are 
also produced some very important results. What these 
are and how they are produced would bo best understood 
if we could, in imagination, put ourselves now in a position 
which would be similar to what must have been the situa- 
tion when these varieties were 6rst experienced by a Soul. 

Let us imagine ourselves t<f be present face to face 
with, indeed to be drowned in, a sea of homogeneous 
sound which has already become, in the way described 
above, no sound at all, that is, has ceased to form an 
object of perception; and let us also imagine thai? there 
are no other objects whatsoever, as would be the case 
under the circumstances we are trying to picture, the 
other generals of Feel, Colour, Flavour and Odour having 
equally and for equal reasons ceased to be perceived. 
Then let us further imagine that there suddenly arises, 
or, which is the same thing, is perceived a variety of 
sounds. What would be the experience that would in- 
stantly, instinctively and necessarily accompany or rather 
follow, this perception of a variety of sounds, as it 
were, all over the Soul, as it would now be, there being as 
yet no localised sense of hearing as there is as yet no 
physical body. It goes almost without saying that it 
would be the experience of a something that goes in all 
Directions ( dishah ) ; that is to say of Wide Expanse or 
Empty-Space ( Avakasha in Sanskrit, as distinguished 
from filled Space which gives lise to the experience of 
relativity of Positions or positional relations, ( Desha in 


Sanskrit ). For, the moment such sounds are perceived 
that very moment, it will also be realised that they are 
proceeding from all directions, corresponding to the 
perception which will be experienced, for reasons stated 
above, all over the Soul \ 

1. Akasha or Ether is nothing hut the Dishah or 'Direc* 
tions* L e. lines of ^hat may be called forces spreading out 
or radiating everywhere. These lines, directions or Distyah 
are symbolised as the 'hairs' of Shiva who is therefore called 
Vyomakesha, i. e.> 'He who has for his hairs the Vyoman 
which is another name for both Dish or Direction and Akasha 
or Space ( See Nirukta, I. 3 and G ). The word Vyoman is 
derived from the root 'Ve' or 'Va* meaning 'weaving* as with 
threads, together with the prefix ' Vi ' meaning diversity. 
From this derivation of the term, it will be readily seen 
how ' Space ' is most appropriately called- Vyoman. For Space 
is essentially made up of these Dishah or directions, going 
everywhere as lines of force, which uphold all things in the 
Universe in various positional relations ( see Hindu Realism^ 
pp. 54v61 ). These lines interweave themselves into that 
universally enveloping fabric which is Space. ( The simile 
of all Space, and indeed the whole universe, being thus 
* woven ' like a cloth is met with several times in the Veda ). 

That Dishah or ' Directions ' as the essence of all Space is 
inseparably connected with ■ Hearing,' which again has no 
meaning without reference to Sound, is an idea which also we 
find repeatedly mentioned in the Upanishads. 

That the all-upholding Dishah, as the 'hairs of Shiva/ 
spreading everywhere, are Lines of Force need not be an 
absurd idea. The existence of similar lines would seem to be 
recognised even by modern Western Science, in certain 
respects at any rate. We are told how there are what would 
appear as 'lines' of Foroe radiating from the poles of a 'magnet', 
which 'lines' being cut by a conductor give rise to an electrical 
current Electricity is again, we are told, somehow mysterious- 
ly connected with Ether, which would seem to be the same 
thing as the Akasha of the Hindus, that is, Akasha which is 
made up essentially of the lines of the Dishah or of the 'Hairs 


That is to say from the experience of variety in the 
uniformity of Sound-as-such, there would result also the 
experience of a Wide Expanse or Space, This Wide 
Expanse, that is this Something spreading in all directions, 
however, is the same as 'Nothing/ This 'something going 
out in all directions, therefore being practically c No- 
thing', the experience of it also results, in practice, in one 
of Vacuity or Empty-Space as said jfbove. In Sanskrit 
it is called Akasha, by which is meant both a something 
which goes out in all directions and makes all Space or 
locale possible ; and also Vacuity or Empty-Space. It 
may perhaps be translated by Ether, ( rather, Ether- 
iality ), as this is also conceived as existing and spreading 
in all directions, taking note however of the fact that 
while what is spoken of as ' Ether ' is regarded in the 
West as having movements — even though they may be 
merely vibratory movements — and as the medium for 

the transmission of light, Akasha as conceived in Hindu 
Philosophy (at least of some schools ) l has no movements 

of Shiva'. May not these 'lines' of the magnetic field be 
connected with the lines of Dishah as the lines of Etherial 
Energy ? 

That such a connection may not be impossible will bo 
apparent from the fact that the Earth is regarded as a vast 
electrical reservoir — the 'common reservoir' as it is called. It 
is also regarded as a vast magnet from which magnetic lines 
of Force are constantly emanating. In the same way, the 
centre of the universe may be conceived as a still vaster magnet 
or electrical reservoir, from which similar lines of Force are 
undoubtedly emanating in all directions. And what can this 
centre of the Universe be but the Divine Reality, which again 
is the innermost Self of every being 1 The lines of Force 
emanating from this centre would then be the Dishah of the 
Hindus, the 'Hairs' of their Shiva, to which must be essentially 
related the lines of Force which demonstrably emanate from 
every magnet, 

1. See Hindu Emlum y p. 52 


whatever, nor has it any such function. Inasmuch as 

this Akasha, Ether or Etherial factor, thougli very real, 
i. e. as real, say, as the solidity of the earth, is for all 
practical purposes and as realised in experience ( not 
merely inferred from other facts of experience ) a mere 
' Nothing ' or Vacuity, we may also call it the Principle 
of Vacuity. 

It is this realisation of the Akasha or Ether i. c. this 
experiencing the Principle of Vacuity, in the way men- 
tioned above, which is described in the technical language 
of the system, when it is said that 

" From variety produced in the Tanmatra of 
Sound there is produced Akasha, " 

And this is said, because there need be no other experience 
whatsoever for the realisation of these varieties of Sound 
but that of ' all directions \ of Wide Expanse, or, what 
is the same thing, of an indefinite something going out 
in aW directions. There may be other experiences, as 
indeed, there will be at a later stage ; but these need not 
necessarily be there or necessarily precede that of 

Further, the experience of Akasha is a necessary 
one, following inevitably and necessarily, as we have seen, 
from that of the varieties of Sound. 

Next let us suppose that we are drowned in a sea of 
uniform temperature i. e., the simplest and lightest form 
of Feel which has already ceased to be perceived as an 
object, and that there are as yet no other objects but the 
already produced varieties of Sound—as would be the 
case under the circumstances we are considering. Then, 
let us further suppose that there arises a variety in this 
uniform and homogeneous temperature and we begin to 
feel more hot or more cold, a freezing or burning sensa- 
tion. What would be the necessarily and inevitably 


consequent experience and how should we feel these 
varieties in temperature most ? It would be, as but a 
little reflection will show, the experience of movements 
like that of air or the aerial atmosphere ; that is, of what 
may be called aeriality — technically Vayu ( lit. the air). 
There need not necessarily be any other experience what- 
sover for the realisation of variations in temperature but 
that of aeriality or movements, liks the air-currents, 
although there may be, as later on there will be, other 
experiences as well, accompanying that of variations 
in temperature. And being a necessary accompaniment 
of this nature, the experience of aeriality is said to 
be produced from the experience of variations in that 
of Feel-as-such. 

Or, speaking technically,^ from the Variations 
produced in the Sparsha-Tanmatra, there comes into 
manifestation, Vayu i. e. Aeriality, 

Let us again suppose we are face to face with an 
all-enveloping mass of Colour-as-such which, for reasons 
mentioned above, has already ceased to form an object 
of experience, although there may bo present in the 
experience at this stage, the already produced percep- 
tions of the variations of Sound and Feel and of Akasha 
and Vayu. Then, let us imagine there suddenly arises 
the experience of a variety of Colours. What would be 
the necessarily consequent experience when this is 
realised ? The obvious answer would perhaps be that it is 
the experience of Form and Shape (Rupa) without which 
no shade of Colour is ever perceived. But a little reflec- 
tion will show that it would really be the experience of 
a something, some power or energy, which builds up, trans* 
forms or destroys such forma For, when there suddenly 
arises a patch of Colour in the vacancy of the horizon, 
it no doubt is seen as a shape or form of some sort. 
But this ' form ' may be said to be the same thing as 


the Colour, because without it colour, as thus perceived 
at the time, has hardly any meaning. And therefore 
the perception of colours of this type means really the 
same thing as the perception of forms ; so much so 
that, instead of saying that there arose the experience 
of a variety of Colours one might as well say there 
arose the experience of a variety of forms. 1 The ex- 
perience of form, therefore, cannot be called a consequent 
experience in tbe same way as Akasha is the consequent 
experience of a variety of Sounds, or Aeriality is 
that of the variation in Feel. It is rather an identical 
experience — the experience of a particular colour being the 
same as that of a particular form. The experience which 
is really a consequent one in this case, is that of a some- 
thing, some power or energy which produces, transforms, 
or destroys these forme : for, as the colour-forms are 
experienced in succession, they are perceived as coming 
into existence, changing and disappearing, giving rise to 
the experience of a something which so produces, changes 
or destroys them — burns them into, or out of, a shape or 
shapes. This burning something, burning and flaring up 
into various shapes and forms or burniug them out, is 
technically called Agni in Sanskrit ( lit. Fire ), by which 
term, however, we must not understand anything — and 
it cannot be too strongly emphasised, in view of the 
numerous and gross misconceptions that have been form- 
ed of its meaning — but this energy or power of which the 
only function is combustion or chemical action ( Jvalana 
or Paka ) which again means simply building, produ- 
cing or reproducing and destroying shapes, bringing 
shapes and forms into existence from what is formless, 
and changing one form into some other or many others 
and vice-versa. 

Thus it is, that from the experience of variety in 

1. The Sanskrit word Rupa means both colour and 


Colour-as-such, there arises the experience of the form* 
builder ( the formative agency or simply Formativity ). 
Or speaking technically, from variety produced in the 
Rupa-tanmfitra, there comes into manifestation Agni, the 
form-building, ( and therefore the form-destroying ) 
Principle, or Formativity. 

Next, let us imagine that our experience of Flavour- 
as-such, which has already ceased to be an object of 
perception, changes into that of a variety of Flavours, 
The necessarily consequent experience to this would be, 
as can be easily seen, that of ' moisture ', i. e. y liquidity; for 
what is tasted, i. e„ different flavours, is always found 
accompanied with the feeling of moisture without there 
necessarily being any other sensation accompanying it. 

This need not bo regarded as a strange idea on 
account of the fact that, unlike the senses of sight, hear- 
ing and feeling-by-touch, the sense of tasting plays such a 
small and unimportant part, and that it seems simply 
absurd to assert that, from this comparatively unimpor- 
tant experience of tasting a variety of flavours, there is 
produced so vast a result as the experience of liquidity, 
which forms so great a portion of the physical woild. 

For, we must not forget, that at the stage we are 
considering, there is as yet no physical body of the soul 
and the senses are therefore not localised as they are in 
the body. The sense of taste as well as that of smell, are, 
therefore, like all other senses, as it were all over the Soul, 
instead of being confined to a small portion of the extend- 
ed organism such as the palate or the nose in the body. 
Besides, as we should not forget either, the soul 
itself, in these stages, is merely an Anu a non-spatial 
point. These sensations therefore of taste and smell are 
at this stage as all filling and overwhelming as any other. 

It is this idea which is technically put when it is 
said : 

" From variety produced in the Rasa-tanmatra 

139 • 

Principle of Stability and Solidity, or, which is the same 
thing, the stable or solid thing. 

There is nothing absurd in this statement ; for, as 
said above and as may be repeated once more, the sens- 
ation of the varieties of smell, as experienced by the 
Soul at this stage is, as it were, all over it and is as all- 
filling and overwhelming as any other. 

Thus from the experiences of • variety in the five 
general objects of perception there are produced also the 
£ve important factors or principles of experience, 
namely, A kasha or Etheriality, Vayu or Aeriality, Agni 
or Formativity, Ap or Liquidity and Prithivi or Solidity ; 
in other words, the ingredients of what we call the phy- 
sical world ( in so far as it is purely physical and actual- 
ly experienced ), — ingredients which are colletively called 
in Sanskrit by the technical narfie of the Bhutas (lit What 
have been, or happened, or the ever ' Have beens ', and 
never * Ares', or the Ghosts, namely, of the Real 1 

The only thing which may perhaps be considered 
as not included in the above general facts is what is 
spoken of as Vitality or Life — that which builds up 
organic forms — which also is found manifest in the 
physical world. It is, however, not really omitted; for 
as we have seen that, from the highest and ultimate point 
of view, Prana or vitality is only the Shiva Tattva which 
serves as the inner life of the universe as the Shakti, which 
produces all the diversity of forms. At a lower stage, 
as we have also seen, it is Aharikarra which holds together 
organic forms and is therefore what appears as vitality 
or Prana in the physical world. Leaving aside, then, the 
consideration of vitality or Prana as a separate factor, 
which besides is hardly a physical element, we have in 
the ten classes of ingredients named above every thing 
of which the physical universe consists. For the latter, 

1 For texts bearing on the production of these Bhutas, 
see Appendix XII 


as actually experienced, is, as can be easily shown, only 
an aggregate — in countless combinations and permuta- 

1. Varieties of Sound, 

2. Varieties of Feel, 

3. do of Colour ( i e. } Form ), 
4* do of Flavour, 

and 5. do < of Odour, 

— things which are collectively called in Sanskrit £he 
Vishayas, i. e. y 'objects' or what 'lies variously in front' and 
perceived as concomitant with, or, which is the same 

thing, as inherent in, the principles of the A kasha, Vayu, 
Agni, Ap and Prithivl, that is, of Etheriality, Aeriality 
Formativity, 1 Liquidity and Solidity. 

There is absolutely nothing else jvhich is an ingre- 
dient of the physical universe, as actually experienced, 
which is not to be found included in these. 

1. The term c Formativity ' might perhaps be substitut- 
ed by * Principle of Appearance ' or * Apparition ' or even by 
' Apparence ' and ' Apparancy, ' all of which words suggest 
the idea of vision, i. e. } of what is visible, as is implied by the 
Sanskrit word Rupa. But as all these words have other 
connotations as well (as, for instance, in the phrase 'Appear- 
ance and Reality ' employed as the title of Bradley's well 
known work ), it was thought best to use the term • Form- 
ativity,' which, more than perhaps any other term, renders 
best the technical sense of the word * Agni '. 

* Agni ' might be rendered as the « Principle of Expres* 
sion ' as well, the word expression in this connection imply- 
ing visible Form of course, as, for instance, in the phrase, the 
1 Expression ' on one's countenance. This would also suggest 
the relation between Agni and Vach or 'Speech ', — a relation 
which is constantly referred to in the Upaniehads and 
could be elaborated into a whole volume of essays. But in- 
spite of this suggestion of the relation between Agni and 
Y&ch, as conveyed in the word ' Expression ', it had to be 


And they Come into manifestation from the Tan- 
matras when varieties are produced in the latter. 

And if the Physical Universe consists of these 
factors, the other factors, explained above, are all of 
which the Super-physical Universe is made. 

These factors, as said above, are palled the Tattvas, 
i. e., the Principles into which the endless variety of things 
we experience, or can ever experience, can be reduced. 
They, in all possible combinations and permutations, make 
up the universe, physical and super-physical, that is, all 
actual or possible experience. 

The Tattvas may, for the sake of convenience, be 

recapitulated here in the reverse order as follows:—- 

♦ • 

I. The five physical orders called the Bhutas, name- 

ly, the principles of the experience of 

1 a. Solidity (Prithivi), 

2 6. Liquidity (Ap), 

3 c. Formativity ( Agni), 

4 d. Aeriality ( Vayu ), 

5. and e. Etheriality ( Akasha ). 

II. The five Powers or Capacities of activity 

called the Karmendriyas, namely, the 
capacities of 

6 a. Resting and enjoying passively or 

re-creating ( Upasthendriya ), 

7 &. Rejecting and discarding 

( Pay vindriya ), 

8 c. Locomotion (Padendriya), 

avoided as a rendering of Agni, because of the ambiguity 
which attaches to it, equally as it does to the word % Appear* 
ance ' and its allied forms. 


9 cL Handling, i.e. } operating as with the 

hands ( Hastendriya ), 
10. and e. Voicing or expressing (Vagindriya). 

III. The five Generals of the Specific Sense-percep- 
tions called the five Tanmatras, namely, 

11 a. Odour-as-such (Gandha-Tanmatra), 

12 bg Flavour-as-such ( Rasa- do ), 

13 c. Colour-as-such ( Rupa- do ), 

14 d. Feel-as-such ( Sparsha- do), 

15, and e. Sound-as-such ( Shabdado). 
IV. The five powers or Capacities of Perception 
called the five Buddhindriyas or Jnanen- 
driyas, namely, the powers of 

16 a. Smelling ( Ghranendriya ), 

17 6. Tag ting ( Rasanendriya ), 

18 a Seeing ( Darshanendriya ), 

19 d. Feeling-by-touch ( Sparshendriya ), 

20. and e. Hearing ( Shravanendriya ). 

* V. The three psychical or mental factors of 

21 a. Manas 

22 &, Ahankara 

23. and c. Buddhi. 

VI. 24. The Prakriti — that is, the general source 
of all the above, consisting of the three 
Affective Features of Sattva, Rajas, and 
Tamas, held in mutual neutralisation or 

VII, 25. The Purusha or the limited individual 
Spirit with its fivefold envelopment i. e., 
the five Kanchukas, viz: 

26 a. Kala, 

27 6. Vidya, 

28 c. Raga, 

29 d. Kala, 

30. and e. Niyati. 


VIII. 31. Maya—the producer of the Purusha and 

IX. The three orders of the ' Pure Way' viz : 

32 a. Sad-Vidya or Shuddha-Vidya, 

33 b. Aishvarya or Ishvara Tattva, 

34. and c. Sadakhya or Sad#-Shiva Tattva. 

And X. The ever-existent, mutually inseparable realities of 

35 a. the Shakti Tattva, 

36. and&. the Shiva Tattva. 

Or, in the order of what may be called, for want of 
a better phrase, their relative distances from the Ultimate 
Reality, that is, Parama Shiva, they are as follows: — 

I. The ever-existing, mutually inseparable 
realities of 

1 a. the Shiva Tattva, 

2... and b. the Shakti Tattva. 
II. The three Orders of the, ' Pure Way', vie : 

3 a. Sadakhya or Sada-Shiva Tattva, 

4 b. Aishvarya or Ishvara Tattva, 

5. and c. Sad-Vidya or Shuddha-Vidya. 

III. 6. Maya —the producer of the Purusha and 

IV. 7. The Purusha or the limited individual 
Spirit with its fivefold envelopment, 
or the five Kaiichukas. viz : 

8 a. Niyati, 

9 b. Kala, 

10 c. Raga, 

11 d. Vidya, 

12. and*. Kala. 


V. 13. The Prakriti— that is, the general source 
of all the five Kanchukas, as well as of 
all that follows, — consisting of the three 
Affective Features of Sattva, Rajas and 
Tamas, held in mutual neutralisation or 

VI. The three, psychical or mental factors of 

14 a. Buddhi, 

15 b. Ahankara, 

16. and c. Manas. 
VII. The five Powers or Capacities of perception call- 
ed the five Buddhlndriyas or Jfianendriyas, 
namely, the powers of 

17 a. Hearing ( Shravanendriya ), 

18 b. F^eling-by-torch ( Sparshendriya ), 

19 c. Seeing ( Darshanendriya ), 

20 d. Tasting ( Rasanendriya ), 

21... and e. Smelling ( Ghranendriya ). 

VIII. The five Generals of the Specific Sense-percep- 
tions called the five Tanmatras, namely, 

22 a. Sound-as-such (Shabda-Tanmatra), 

23 b. Feel-as-such ( Sparsha- do ), 

24 & Colour-as-Such ( Rupa- do ), 

25 d. Flavour-as-such ( Rasa- do ), 

26.,.and& Odour-as-such ( Gandha- do ). 

IX. The five Powers or Capacities of activity called 
the Karmendriyas, namely, the capacities of 

27 a. Voicing or Expressing (Vagindriya), 

28 b. Handling i. e. operating as with 

the hands ( Hastendriya ), 

29 c. Locomotion ( Padendriya), 

30 d. Rejecting and discarding (Payv- 

Indriya ), 
31... and & Resting and enjoying passively or 

re-creating ( Upasthendriya )♦ 


X. The five physical orders called the Bhutas, name- 
ly, the principles of the experiences of 

32... a. Etherialifcy ( Akasha ), 

33 b. Aeriality ( Vayu ), 

34 c. Formativity ( Agni ), 

35. ...... d. Liquidity ( Ap ), 

36.. and e. Solidity ( Prithivl ). 

# Above and beyond them all, that is to say, trans- 
cending tlicra all, and yet pervading and permeating 
them all, there stands Parama Shiva or Para Samvit, 
the supremest Experience, beyond and unaffected by all 
time, space and relation, but yet alone making the exis- 
tence of the manifested universe, constituted of the 
Tattvas, possible. 

And this is so Jbecause the .process whereby all this 
is produced is, as said at the very outset, not one of 
actual division, but one of logical thinking or experienc- 
ing out — that process of thought of which each successive 
step iire'SuppoSes and involves the whole of the preced- 
ing ones, which also remain intact, though, it may be, 
quite in the back-ground. 

And, therefore, what is true of Parama Shiva in 
this respect, is also true of every one of the Tattvas 
mentioned above in regard to the Tattvas which follow 
from it immediately or through the intervention of other 
Tattvas — a point which cannot be too strongly emphasis- 
ed. That is to say, as Parama # Shiva pervades all the 
Tattvas and the whole of tho Universe, and yet remains 
for ever the same and unaffected by them, as it were 
standing beyond them all, transcending them all, so 
does each Tattva in regard to all the other Tattvas 
which succeed it. It pervades and permeates them all 
and yet remains ever the same — has still an existence 
of its own as it ever had, even after the Tattvas as 
its immediate and mediate products have come into 


But, as each preceding ( i. e. previously manifested 
or experienced ) Tattva, while remaining what it is, still 
permeates and pervades all the succeeding ones, it hap- 
pens that there is present in each successive Tattva the 
whole of the preceding ones also. Each successively 
manifesting Tattva thus lives, moves, and has its entire 
being, as may be truly said, in the ones preceding it 
That is to say, wherever there exists a lower Tattva, i. e., 
a Tattva of greater restriction ( being produced from one 
of a wider scope), there are also all the other and higher 
ones, in full manifestation and holding the lower, as 
it were, in their bosom, they existing as so many concen- 
tric circles of gradually decreasing extent — or, from 
another point of view, standing, like a number of mathe- 
matical points all occupying the same position and yet 
somehow maintaining their individuality, in the heart 
of the lower as its very life and soul. Thus the whole 
range of Tattvas are present in their entirety even in the 
lowest of them. In other words, the lowest Tattva involves 
all the higher ones as each successively lower Tattva 
involves the ones which precede it. 

The process of the production of the Tattvas may, 
therefore, be spoken of, as it indeed is, as one of involu- 
tion, the Reality or Parama Shiva being more and more 
involved, as, so to speak, it descends towards the stage 
at which it appears as the physical. 

It is also a process — besides being one of logical 
experiencing out and of Involution — of differentiation, 
or rather, multiplication. For the Ultimate Reality, by 
repeatedly involving itself, produces not a single limited 
unit merely, but a multiplicity of such units. For, it will 
be remembered, that out of the thirty-six Tattvas enumer- 
ated in the list given above ( p. 143), the first mentioned 
two main groups, i. c, down to Sad-Vidya ( no. 5 ), are 
universal Maya also is Universal in a sense ; for there is 
only one and the same Maya for all individual Purushas* 


even though they may not, indeed do not, realise her as one 
and identical, in the same way as the Experiences of the 
Pure Order realise their respective objects of experience 
in a given stage as one and identical in every respect* 1 
But from the Purusha — with its fivefold Kafichuka or 
veil — downwards, the Tattvas are all limitedly individual; 
that is to say, they are not only many but mutually 
exclusive. Thus the product in the Putusha-Prakriti stage 
is # not a Universal all-comprehending something or some- 
things but an infinite number of Purusha-Prakriti twins, 
which limit each other and are mutually exclusive. All 
the other products also, following the Purusha-Prakriti 
pairs, are similarly many, limited and mutually exclusive. 
Thus, there are produced, not a single triad of Buddhi, 
Ahankara and Manas, a single decad of Indriyas, and 
single quintad eachuof the Tanmatras and Bhutas, but 
an endless number of triads, decads and quintads — as 
many as there are Purusha-Prakriti twins — which ulti- 
mately become involved in and as these subsequently 
produced Tattvas. # 

Finally, this countless number of individual, limited 
and mutually exclusive Buddhis, Ahankaras and Manases, 
of the decads of the Indriyas and of the quintads of the 
Tanmatras and Bhutas, are each an Aim, as the limited 
Purusha itself is an Anu, a non-spatial point, almost like a 
mathematical point. As each Purusha becomes more and 
more involved and ultimately results in the Bhutas, and 
among them again in the Prithivl-Tattva, what he really 
becomes — even though and while he remains what he as a 
Purusha is and what he as each of the intermediate links 
has become — is an Anu, namely an Anu of Piithivi. 2 

1. Maya is one and identical for all Purushas in the 
same way as Prakriti, from the Sankbya point of view, is one 
and identical for all Purushas as recognised by that system. 

2, This stand-point of looking at the process of Univer- 
sal manifestation! as leading to the production of Anus, has 


Thus it happens that what are produced by this 
process of logical experiencing out and of involution and 
multiplication, — as its final results in the direction of 
involution and differentiation, — are an infinite number 
of Anus of the various classes of Tattvas, from the 
Purusha, wrapped in his fivefold Kailchuka, down to the 
Piithivi. And as they thus come into manifestation, 
they act and reacts* on one another, producing a still 
further complication, of which the real nature will 
be considered a little later on. For our present purpose 
it will be enough just to note this fact, that, coming out 
into existence as so many classes of Anus, the Tattvas 
interact between themselves, and are each of them, for all 
practical purposes, so many separate and mutually ex- 
clusive limited entities. 

* * 

This, however, is only one aspect of their existence — 

the distributive aspect. They have a collective exis- 
tence as well and we have to note that fact too. In the 
collective aspect of their existence, each class of Tattvas 
forms a single unit, having an existence and behaviour of 
its own which are other than those of the distributive, i. e. 
separate, Tattvas of the class. 

The idea may be illustrated by the example of the 
cells of a living body. There the cells have each an 
individual life and existence of its own, which for all 
practical purposes is independent of others and is self- 
contained. Yet they together form a single unit, a single 
living organism, which also has a definite life and exist- 
ence of its own, not as a mere collection of many units, 
but as a single Unity, even though it is formed collective- 
ly by the aggregate of the individual cells. 

reference to that particular means of realising the Divine 
State of Freedom or Mukti which is called AnavopSya in the 
Trika system, and which will be briefly explained later. 


These collective entities are termed the Lords of the 
Tattvas, the Tattveshas or their Presiding Deities, 
Adhishthatrl Devatas. 

The more important of these collective entities or 
the Tattveshas are the following: — 

1. Shrl-kantha or Shrl-Kantha-natha in the 
Prakrifci Tattva; • 

• and 2. Brahma in the region of the Physical Tattvas. 1 

Thus there are produced the Tattvas or the general 
factors, or principles constituting the Universe of experi- 
ence, down to the world of solids, and thus do they exist 
as Anus as distributive entities, but as mighty beings 
as collective wholes. And all this is done by a process 
of logical Experiencing out and of Involution and differ- 

And once this is done, the Divine Shakti, i. e., the 
Universal Energy takes, as it were, an upward turn and 
begins to evolve and re-unite what has thus been Involv- 
ed and differentiated. 

Before, however, going into a consideration, however 
briefly, of this question of Evolution, and leaving the 
subject of the Tattvas, let me just point out two very 
important facts in regard to them. 

The first is that the Tattvas, as recognised by the 
Trika, are not more philosophical abstractions which 
neither have any practical bearing on life nor are capable 
of realisation by mcst human beiugs. Their rational 
comprehension is no doubt not possible without 
philosophical reflection. But there is not one of us, — not 
even the least reflecting and most incapable of forming 
any intellectual comprehension of the Tattvas — who is 

I. There are Tattveshas in the Pure Order also, but in 
a somewhat different sense. Who they are will be seen later. 


nob actually using them every moment of his life ( even 
though he may not be aware of the fact ), and is therefore 
not experiencing them in a way. Indeed, one is forced 
to experience them, however dimly and unthinkingly, 
inasmuch as they all stand as the permanent back- 
ground and ever-present presuppositions of experience 
at every moment of one's life. 

For instance, a§ I am writing this and occasionally 
looking out of my window, I am perceiving a brick 
building at a distance and a tall and fine date-palm 
tree waving in the wind, its leaves sounding pleasant- 
ly as they are moving. Now in this very perception 
even of these trivial things, I am experiencing, how- 
ever dimly and implicitly, the existence of the whole 
series of the Tattvas. I am experiencing the Prithivi, 
Ap, Agni and Vayu as Tattvas, in so far as I am 
.thinking of the objects before me as solid, more or 
less moist — the tree having more moisture, i. e. } liquidity 
in it than the dry bricks of the building, — of both the 
objects as having forms and of the one as moving with 
a movement which I am inferring is aerial by having 
previous experience of aeriality, and of the other as not 
affected much by it. 

I am experiencing Akasha as I am realising they 
are being perceived in a direction or directions, and as 
occupying and filling a certain area, of space, while 
there is ' Nothing ' about them. 

The existence of {he Tanmatras is being realised, 
however vaguely and subconsciously, every moment I am 
referring the particular varieties of the Odour and Flav- 
our ( as I am thinking of the delicious fragrance and 
sweet taste of the fruit and of the sugary juice of the 
date palm, and am comparing them with the poverty of 
these in the building ), of the Colour and Feel ( the cool 
of the date leaves and their shade, however scanty, and 
the heat of the building as it can grow hot in the summer 


months in these parts of India 1 ) and of the particular 
Sounds the waving date branches are making — I am 
referring these varieties to the general conceptions of 
Odour-, Flavour-, Colour-, Feel- and Sound-as-such, this 
reference alone enabling me to think of them as particulars, 
namely, the particulars of the Generals which the 
Tanmatras are. 

The Indriyas are being realised as I am perceiving 
the tree and the building by means of the special senses 
of* sight and hearing ( the sound of the leaves ) and 
symbolically speaking about them ( for writing is nothing 
else ) and am handling this pen. 

I am experiencing the existence of Manas as a 
Tattva when I am selecting out of, i. e. to the exclusion of, 
a whole mass of othej sensations, 9nly a certain group, and 
am, with this selected group, picturing these objects, 
i. e. imaging them, in my mind. I am experiencing 
the Manas also when I am turning my attention now 
to the building and then to the tree and then &gain 
to the paper I am putting down my thoughts upon. 
Manas is being experienced also in the fact that the 
sense-perception of colours — the only one of the kind, 
excepting the occasional sound of the leaves, I am at 
present having of the tree and the building — is passing 
constantly away like the flow of a river and what I am 
really having, at every conceivable fraction of a second, 
is a fresh senastion of which the duration is far, far 
shorter than the sensation of the prick of a needle, and 
that, while this is what I am really receiving, I am still 
making, of what is only a series of successive points of 
sensation-pricks, a continuous whole, and realising it as 
a picture spread out in a space, ( This however is not an 
actual experience but the result of psychological analysis). 

1. The above was written at Jaramu, the winter capital 
of His Highness the Maharaja Sahib Bahadur of Jaramu and 
Kashmir, a burningly hot place in the summer. 


Tho existence of Ahatikara is being recognised in 
the fact that, while I am actually perceiving only a 
colour-form spread out in space, I am substantiating this 
form by associating with it my own experiences of 
Solidity, Moisture, Odour, Flavour and the like — things 
which I am not now actually perceiving and which I am 
drawing from the ^ore-house of my own 2^ ossc88 ^ ori8 °f 
previous experience : For what else is Ahaiikara but 
the totality of these possessions which alone give me my 
individual character as a particular person born and 
brought up in a particular country and surroundings ? 

The presence of the Buddbi is being realised in the 
fact that I am referring to a general class the picture, 
which is thus substantiated by associating with it other 
and previous experiences of my owr^ and as I am think- 
ing of the one that it is a tree and of the other that it 
is a building, I am able to do so only bacause there al- 
ready exists somewhere in the background of my being 
and Consciousness such an experience of the Generals. 
And Buddhi being none other than this experience of 
the Generals, I am realising Buddhi as I am making such 
a reference. 

The existence of Prakriti is being recognised in the 
fact that while the perception of the tree with its 
waving leaves and branches against the lovely blue sky 
induces in me a feeling of pleasure, I am thinking how 
it would have induced me, if I were a child, to be so active 
as to climb up its scaly trunk for the fruit, and 
thus make me suffer all that painful feeling which such 
a procedure might involve; and how also the same very 
innocent looking tree could have been the occasion of 
throwing me, as such a fruit gathering child, into a state 
of feeling stunned and senseless, if, while plucking the 
fruit, I were struck heavily on the head by one of its 
waving branches or were stung by a swarm of hornets 
which not unofteo build their nests on such trees. In 


other words, I am realising Prakriti as I am at present 
feeling pleasure at the sight of the tree — which feeling as 
I am realising it, is, as it were, welling up in me from a 
deeply buried source in my nature, and am also thinking 
how there are in me the potentialities of a moving pain 
and of a stunning feeling leading to immovability ; for 
Prakriti is no other than the Potentiality of these in me. 

The Purusha is being recognised in what realises 
itself, however dimly, as the reality which, remaining 
motionless and changeless, and as it were, standing still 
somewhere in the back-ground of my being, witnesses, so 
to say from behind, the operations, i. e. the movements 
of the Senses, Manas, Ahankara and Buddhi as the tree 
is being perceived, and experiences the play of the 
Prakriti as the feelings, pleasant, painful or otherwise, 
which the perception of the tree Is producing in me. 

The Kanchukas of the Purusha are recognised in the 
fact that the Purusha, that is, myself as the ' witness \ 
feels itself limited as regards : — • 

a. Simultaneity of perception (Kala) — the Purusha 
having such perception in succession only, now 
of the tree, now of the building and then again 
of the paper, desk and so on in the room in 
which I am writing ; 

b. Freedom as to where, how and what the 
Purusha should or should not experience, so that 
it is bound by certain restrictions of condition, of 
occasion, locality, cause and sequence, — it being 
obliged to perceive only the tree and the building 
here on this occasion as I am seated here and to 
be affected by them in a particular way or ways, 
so long there exist certain conditions ( Niyati ); 

c. Interest, so that it can keep itself engaged in 

only a few things at a time ( Raga ) — letting go 
its intereat from the tree when engaged in writ- 


ing down these thoughts, and being obliged to 
forego the latter task when contemplating about 
the tree and the building; 

d. The Sphere of its consciousness i. ?., its purview, 
so that it can have its perceptions ( i. e. visions 
of the ideas or images as they arc induced, 
or, as it is said, 'reflected', in the Buddhi) only 
within a restricted area ( Vidyfi ) — it has percep- 
tions of only what lies within a limited horizon, 
such as the date palm, the building, the walls of 
the room and a few other things; and 

e. Power of accomplishment, so that it could not, 
even if it would, make or unmake the tree or 
the building as it is composing these lines as it 
pleases. (Kala). 

Maya is being realfsed in the fact that, while what 
are being perceived as the tree and the building are real- 
ly part and parcel of me, my own sensations and imagina- 
tions, substantiated by materials from my own Ahaiikara 
and pictured against the back-ground of my own Buddhi — 

which are really and finally but an aspect of myself 

they are still being perceived as separated from me and 
from each other, one placed here and another there, 
"measured out" away from me and from each other. 

So far, it is evident, the realisation of the Tattvas 
is direct in every individual human being, in the sense 
that they, coming into play, weave themselves into the 
experience which individuals, as limited and mutually 
exclusive beings, have in any given situation or sphere of 
existence. The realisation of the remaining Tattvas, from 
the Sad-Vidya upwards to the Shiva Tattva, and beyond 
them still, the realistion of Parama Shiva, is not so direct. 
They are realised ordinarily, rather, as the most general 
and universal principles and presuppositions of experience, 
in such a way that these principles, when taken by them- 
selves, would give to experience no individual colouring 


whatever, so as to make one set of experiences, in any 
given stage, in any way whatsoever different in content 
from any other set* That this is so will be quite evident 
if we have fully understood what has been said before 
regarding the nature of these higher Tattvas and of 
Parama Shiva. For it will then be seen that of these 
Tattvas: — 

# i. The Sad-Vidya is really only a principle of corre- 
lation between the Experiencer and the Experienced as a 
universal whole — a something which holds these two 
aspects of Experience, as it were, in perfect equilibrium 
in which both are seen in equal prominence. Such a 
principle, it is obvious, is one and the same for all, but not 
limitedly individual in the same way as is, for instance, 
the Vidya ( one of the Kanchijkas) or the Buddhi. My 
Vidya or Buddhi is not the same as yours. For my 
Vidya or Buddhi as an individual property enables me to 
have a set of experiences which is different in content from 
yours, and which as such excludes, to some extent at 
least, what is not mine but is yours. This could not bo 
possible if your Vidya or Buddhi were exactly one and 
the same thing with mine. For then there would bo no 
reason why your Vidya or Buddhi should give you an 
experience from any part of which I should bo shut out 
by my Vidya or Buddhi. 

This is, however, not the case with the Sad-Vidya 
which, as a general, i. c. universal, principle, only shows 
itself as the power which equally correlates both you and 
me as experiencers to what we both have as the experi- 
enced. Your relation, as the experiencer, to your own set 
of the experienced is no greater or no less — no more or 
no less strong — than my relation, in the same kind of 
capacity, to my set of the experienced. What therefore 
establishes this relation, both between you and your 
'experienced' and between me and my 'experienced/ is 
really the same general or common thing or principle. 


This being the nature of the principle of correlation 
between the Experiencer and the Experienced, i e. of the 
Sad-Vidya, it is very unlike the Vidya or Buddhi which 
in you gives to you, let us say, a wider field of experience 
than the one in me does to me. 

Similarly: — 

ii. The Aishv&ra is really the Principle of general 
objectivity in which the subjectivity, or the 'I', is practi- 
cally merged, i. e„ with which it is identified. And this 
general and universal principle of objectivity is the same 
in all, unlike the specific groups of objectivity which 
you and I, as limited and mutually exclusive individuals, 
experience ; 

iii. The Sadakhya is the general principle of Being 
without any individual colouring; 

iv. The Shakti-Tattva is the general principle of 
Negation; and 

v: The Shiva- Tattva is the general principle of 
the pure T, from which not only all individual colouring 
and all objectivity has been eliminated, but in which the 
very notion of Being, as implied in 'am', has been sup- 
pressed; while 

vi. Parama Shiva is that Reality which is the most 
Supremely Universal, and but for which neither the 
Negation of the ' Am ' and of all objectivity, nor their 
subsequent emergence 5nto view can have any meaning. 
Leave out Parama Shiva as the most Supremely Univer- 
sal Reality, and there would be no more meaning in the 
appearance and existence of the Tattvas than there would 
be in the evolution and existence of the l ions ', and then 
of the atoms, as recognised by Western Chemistry, if 
the existence of the Universal Ether were denied. It has 
been made clear, I hope, that the appearance and exist- 
ence of the Tattvas are as necessary for experience, 
( or, which is the same thing, for the existence of the 


Universe ) as the 'ions' and ' atoms' are for the exist- 
ence of things physical ; and the same logic which de- 
mands the recognition of a Universal Ether in the case 
of the latter demands also the recognition of Parama 
Shiva in regard to the former. 

And if we understand in this way the true nature 
of the Tattvas from the Sad-Vidyji upwards and of 
Parama Shiva, we shall also see how even these Tattvas 
and Parama Shiva are realised in a way ( though not 
certainly like the other Tattvas ) in every experience, 
however trival. For then we see how : — 

The presence of the Sad-Vidya is to be recognised 
in the fact that there is a correlation between the percep- 
tion of the tree and the building on the one hand and 
myself on the other — the correlation of subject and object, 
of the Experiencer on the one hand, and, of the Experien- 
ced on the other, as distinguished from all means of 
experience such as the Senses, Manas, Ahankara and the 
Buddlii. There is no reason why or how this correlation 
between two such diametrically opposed groups should 
ever be established, if there were not in me something of 
which the Experiencer in me on the one hand and the 
Experienced, on the other, are the two factors or sides 
which are already thus united as one correlated whole 
and yet are distinct, i. e. differentiated, facts so as to be 
recognised as two. This something is tiic Sad-Vidya. 

The presence of the Aishvara is similarly to be 
recognized in that of which these'two are the aspects so 
correlated by the Sad-Vidya, and in which the aspects 
must already exist as an undifferentiated ivhole, the one 
L e. the subject, the T, being merged into the other. 

The Sadakhya is also there inasmuch as, while I am 
perceiving the tree and the building, I am not only realis- 
ing, however subconsciously, that I am myself a 'Being', a 
changeless reality which always is, but I am also thinking 
of the tree and the building, as somethings which are — 


that is, I am thinking that there is in them a something 
which is real and changeless or indestructible. This idea 
of Being which I am associating with the perceptions of 
the tree and the building can never be got anywhere in 
the world of sense perception, where all things are 
fleeting and constantly changing, and therefore is not 
born of an experience which is to be found stored up in 
the Aharikara. It fs therefore already and always exist- 
ing in me as the notion of being, that is as one of the 
most general of all conceptions ; and as such constitutes 
the Sadakhya. 

Then again there can be recognised the presence 
of both the Shakti and Shiva Tattvas in mc — rather 
my existence in them — inasmuch as there is and must 
be the experience of the jmre 6 1/ apart even from the 
experience of the simple ' I am\ i. c., of Being. For the 
experience of ' I am' or of Being is constantly presup- 
posing the experience of the pure T, without the rela- 
tion wjfiich is implied in the copula f am, ' But it could 
not be thus 2 )r ^ su Pposed if it were not already there in 
me. And because the Shiva Tattva is none other than 
this pure ' I ', which is without even a thought of an 
€ am ', therefore every moment the pure ' I ' is being 
presupposed, the Shiva Tattva is being realised, however 
dimly and vaguely, in experience. And if there is the 
presence of the pure T in me — or rather of the 'me' in 
the pure T — there must exist in me also that which 
'Negates' the experience of the 'am', And it is this 
Negating Power which is the Shakti Tattva in me. 

Finally, because the pure T of the Shiva Tattva and 
the Negative Power of the Shakti Tattva cannot but be 
the two aspects of one and the same thing, — from which 
they can never be dissociated, any more than they can be 
dissociated from each other, each being related to the 
other as Power to the Powerful, — therefore that Some- 
thing of which they are but aspects must also be there in 

159 • 

me, i. e., behind and permeating all that I experience 
as my personal being, as well as all the objects and means 
of experience. It is this Something which is the Parama 
Shiva in me. 

Thus it is that all the Tatfcvas arc not only always 
present in me, and T, as a limited person, am present in 
the higher ones of them, but every one of them is active- 
ly participating in very experience I am having — even 
such a trivial experience as the perception of a tree and 
a building which I am looking at out of my window. 

The Tatfcvas are, therefore, being realised, most dimly 
no doubt, at every moment of our lives, even by those of 
us who can hardly form auy clear and rational idea 
oi! them. 

They are being* realised, thai is, as they are acting 
as the guiding and determining principles and essential 
factors of our every-day experience ; namely in the follow- 
ing way: — 


1. The Prithivi, Ap, Agni, Vayu and the Akasha 
Tattvas are acting as the general experiences, res- 
pectively, of all Solidity, Liquidity, the merely chemical 
form-building Energy, Aeriality and Directions or empty 
Space; while the Tanmatras are acting as the general 
experiences of Odour, Flavour, Colour, Feel-by-touch 
and Sound as such: — these two groups serving constantly 
as the principles and essential elements of all our purely 
physical experiences. 

2. The ten Indriyas — the five powers of Perception 
and five powers of Action — are acting as the principles 
and essential elements of all our sense organs and active 
muscles of the body. 

3. The Manas, Ahankara and Buddhi are working as 
the principles and essential means of all the mental and 
psychical experiences on the part of the individual soul. 

* 160 

4. The Prakriti is manifesting herself as that 
principle in us which, as the deeply buried and hidden 
source and fountain of all feeliugs — pleasure, pain and 
callousness — is constantly welling up in one or other 
of these forms as the individual soul is having its 
physical and psychical experiences. 

5. The Puruslia is acting as that principle in our 
daily life which — stfinding as it were in the back-ground 
of the Indriyas, Manas, Ahahkara and Buddhi and face •to 
face with Prakriti — realises itself as the subject which is 
being affected by these experiences, i. e., which is either 
enjoying them, suffering from them or is being so struck 
down by them as to become insensible; in other words, 
which is being affected by these three types of the modi- 
fications of the Prakriti, 

C. The five Kafictfukas are acting constantly as 
those limitations in us which characterise the soul as an 
individual and limited entity, and which are inseparably 
sticking to it, all the time it is having experiences as a 
limited subject, and without which it can, as such a 
limited subject, never have any experiences whatsoever. 1 

1 *^t*r wr^tfef^ *nfor (Ish. Prat. Vim., III. i. 9.) — l They 
appear as slicking to the Experience!- \ That is to say, the 
Experience^ as a limited individual subject of experience, has 
these always with it, covering it, as it were, with a manifold 
veil, through which alone it can ever have experience. This veil 
for ever interposes itself between the Experiencer on the one 
hand and the Experienced on the other. In other words, in all 
limited experience, the veil is for ever presupposed, it being 
there first as an inevitable pre-requisite heforo any limited ly 
individual experience is had. 

If this nature of the Kafichukas is properly understood, 
they will then be seen to be essentially what Kant called 
1 the Forms of perception and conception ' which, like the 
Kafichukas, are always with the experiencing subject, as the 
inevitable presuppositions and indispensably pre-requisite 


7. Maya is being realised inasmuch as she acts as 
the principle which imposes these limitations on what 
is really and essentially unlimited by either Time, Space 
or Form, and as that which makes one realise a separation 
between himself as the Experiencer and the objects which 
are experienced and thus serves as the cause of experienc- 
ing a plurality where there is really none. 

8. The Sad-Vidya is acting as the Principle of 
correlation between the Experiencer and the Experienced, 
which would otherwise not only remain unconnected with 
each other, but there would be no reason whatsoever why 
what are mutually so different in nature, as are the Exper- 
iencer and the Experienced, should be able to affect each 
other at all; or there should be any knowledge and 
experience at alL # • 

9. The Aishavara is acting, if such a term can at all 
be used in connection with this and the following Tattvas, 
as the Principle in which the Experiencer and the 

conditions of experience. Indeed Kant's c Forms of percep- 
tion and conception ' would seem to agree with the Kanchu- 
kas of the Trika philosopher not only in essence but, to a 
great extent, in details also. For instance, the ( a ) Time and 
( b ) Space and Causality of Kant are nothing but the ( a ) 
Kala and ( b ) Niyati of the Trika. 

Thus it would seem that this c discovery ' of Kant had 
already been known in India many # centuries before that great 
German was born. Yet it is this discovery of the • Forms 
of perception and conception ' which is one of the principal 
achievements that made Kant's name so great in the West. 
Bub how many are there, even in India, who have ever heard 
of the poor Brahman philosophers of Kashmir who knew 
these very things, and much more, not only in general out- 
lines bub in detail, long before Kant's time ? Most deplor- 
able indeed is the degradation of Indians who musb import 
from Europe even things philosophical, wherein at any rate 
their ancestors excelled so greatly, 


Experienced, when so correlated, stand unified ; for what 
are thus correlated, like the two poles of a magnet, imply 
an essence of which, as a unity, they are the poles. 

10. The Sadakhya is serving as the principle which 
enables any of us to experience, L a, to feel, think and 
speak of, anything, including oneself as an individual, as 
a Being. 

11. The Shiva Tattva is showing itself as the Prin- 
ciple of the pure T as distinguished from the personal 
Ego of the Ahankara ; while the Shakti Tattva is being 
realised as the Principle which divests the Shiva Tattva 
of everything else, so that it can become the principle 
of the pure c I \ 

12. While these Tattvas are thus constantly acting 
and showing themselves as the Principles and essential 
and general factors of our daily and hourly experiences — ■ 
which are but the various combinations of these principles 
and elements — the Parama Shiva stands behind and 
beyond them all, as well as comprising; them all, as their 
one and supremest Synthesis. 

The second fact which I should point out about the 
Tattvas, before leaving them to consider other topics of 
the Trika, is that, if the Tattvas and Parama Shiva are 
thus always with every one of us, nay if we are every one 
of us in them and made up of them, and if, on that 
account, we are constantly realising them, though only in 
a dim and vaguely abstract fashion, without ever, or 
hardly ever, being able to imagine their real grandeur and 
sway, this is not the only way in which they are realised, 
or that there is no other means by which their full sway 
and true grandeur can be experienced* On the contrary, 
there certainly is such a means. This means consists in 
that method of self-culture, mental, moral, spiritual and 
even physical, which constitutes what is called Yoga, in the 
true sense of the term, and which enables a Spirit to shake 


off the very limitations that make of the real Experi- 
encer such a limited entity and to rise to those regions 
of experience which the highest Tattvas are. Those who 
train themselves by this method of Yoga, and who are 
therefore called Yogins, can and do realise the Tattvas by 
direct experience as clearly as, indeed more clearly than, 
we perceive the physical and sense-objects ; and as they 
thus realise them, they experience th^ Tattvas in theii real 
nature and grandeur which we, considering them but ration- 
ally, can only dimly guess, arguing in our minds, how each 
successively higher synthesis ( as the higher Tattavs are 
of the lower ones, and as a Tattva is of the particulars 
of a class ) must be ever increasingly more, and not 
less, grand and glorious, than the physical universe in all 
its grandeur can ever be, and how it must be far otherwise 
than the bare abstraction which a Tattva, when merely 
infrentially conceited as a principle, appears to be. 

Indeed it is thus,— so the Hindu Philosopher empha- 
tically declares, — by means of Yoga-experience, that the 
Tattvas and their true nature first came to be kn<jwn and 
taught; and not by mere logical inference. Logic and reason- 
ing were applied to them only after they had thus been 
realised by direct experience, in order just to show how 
their existence and reality can also be rationally estab- 
lished, and how they need not and should not be taJcen as 
mere matters of faith or revelation. 

However that may be, the point which should be noted 
here is that the Tattvas are regarded not as mere philoso- 
phical abstractions and logical inferences from the ordinary 
sensible and physical experiences of human beings as 
limited individuals. They are, on the contrary, realities 
which can, while as the principles of our daily experience 
they are present with us at every moment of our lives, be 
realised in all their grandeur and glory, in and as direct 
and positive experience, by that self-unfoldment to which 
true Yoga leads. 

While the Tattvas, as both the guiding principles 


and the constitutive factors in the daily lives of every 
one of us, are thus participating in every experience, 
however trivial, which every one of us is having at every 
moment of his life, they are not, from the Purusha with 
his Jive Kanchukas downward, the same for every 
limited and individual experiencer — a fact which has 
been pointed ont before and which may be repeated 
here. They are, on the contrary, different for different 
experiencing entities, each experiencing entity having^ so 
to say, its own set or series of the Tattvas. They are 
no doubt alike, so that one set may be spoken of as the 
same as any other set, in the same sense that the repeated 
performances of a dramatic piece, i e.> a set or series of 
dramatic actions, songs, and the like, by a particular 
dramatic company, are spoken of as the same perfor- 
mance, although as a m&tter of fact 4 they are but perfor- 
mances which are really all different, although quite alilce 
one to the other. In the case of the Tattvas, both as the 
principles of experience on the part of the different 
limited souls as well as such experiences themselves on 
their part, considered as so many separate but similar 
performances, the one performing company, to borrow a 
simile from the Saiikhya, is Maya. 1 It is one and the 
same Maya which, while she ever remains what she is, 
gives for each limited Purusha, a separate performance. 
Each such performance given separately for each Purusha 
constiutes both the principles of experiences and the 
experiences themselves, on the part of that particular 

1. From the Sankya point of view the one performing 
company is the Prakjiti which is one for all the Puru§has. 

In this case the simile has a better application inasmuch 
as the three Gupas of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, which, when 
in equipoise, constitute the Prakriti, may be conceived 
as the partners in the performing company. From the Trika 
point of view the better simile would perhaps be that of 
a Magician to whom Maya may be likened. 


Purusha, because the experiences are only the various 
combinations, permutations and differentiations, of the 
principles. Such a performance constitutes, in other 
words, what really and literally is the Universe of that 
particular Purusha as a limited being. And because these 
separate performances for separate Purushas are, under 
similar circumstances, so much alike — given as they are 
by the same company of Maya — they are mistaken for 
a single performance. Thus it comes to be believed that 
io is a single universe that we all, as limited beings, 
experience, while as a matter of fact everyone of us has 
a separate and distinct universe of his own 1 . 

And if with all the obvious and well-known 
differences in the contents of our several experiences 
as mutually exclusive and limited beings, we can still 
think and speak a^ the same of these contents, i. e. } of 
our various universes, which are none other than these 
several sets of the contents of the several experiences on 
our part, it goes without saying that the experiencers of 
the Pure Order experience a universe which is quite 
identical. For as we shall see later, there too is, in a 
sense, a plurality of experiencers, though there is absolu- 
tely no difference in the contents of their several 

Even then, what they experience severally is not one 
bub several, though absolutely identical, performances — in 
the sense that these are absolutely alike in all and every 

1. The ' universe ' which each limited individual experi- 
ences is really his own, and is, as such, quite other than, even 
though it may be quite similar to, that of another, in the same 
way as the vision of one eye is different from that of the other. 
As is well known, one sees with one's two eyes not one and 
the same picture of a thing, but two pictures, which are no 
doubt quite alike* The individual experiences of the universe 
( or, which is the samething the universe itself ), is called, 
for this reason, Pratisvika in Sanskrit, i. e. * each one's own. ' 
But this does not mean solipsism ; see Appendix X JI, 


respect. And the one performing company in their case is 
the Divine Shakti as such — She who holds in her womb 
the whole of the Universe, both of the Pure and Impure 
Orders, as an eternal potentiality, and goes on reproducing 
it eternally and severally for the several experiencers, so 
long as there are any in manifestation. 

But although the Tattvas and Universes as experi- 
ences are thus different for different experiencers, they in 
each stage yet form a unity — have, as said above, a 
collective existence which behaves as, and constitutes, as 
a matter of fact, a single entity — as ultimately the whole 
is a single unity in and as Parama Shiva. That is to say, 
the Tattvas have both a distributive and a collective 
existence — the former as many units and the latter as a 
single unit. 

And as the experiencers have a collective existence, 
their t universes' also have similar existences forming the 
experiences of (he collective entities at the different 
stages- But while such distributively and collectively 
existing universes must be very different in the region 
where limited beings have distributive experiences, there 
can be hardly any such differences where the experience is 
not limited but universal, being constituted of every thing 
there is to experience at any given stage, and without 
any restriction as to duration and extension, i. e., is 
timeless and spaceless.